Commerce and Trade
Other Laws Relating to Commerce and Trade
CHAPTER 49A. Auto Repair Fraud Prevention
The purpose of this chapter is to safeguard the public against fraudulent auto repair practices thereby enhancing public confidence in legitimate auto repair facilities and mechanics.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2;
For the purposes of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply:
(1) “Airbag” means a motor vehicle inflatable occupant restraint system device that is part of a supplemental restraint system.
(2) “Automotive repair facility” means any person who performs auto repair work on a motor vehicle for financial profit.
(3) “Auto repair work” means performing or attempting to perform repairs and/or maintenance on a motor vehicle for financial profit.
(4) “Counterfeit supplemental restraint system component” means a replacement supplemental restraint system component, including, but not limited to, an airbag, that displays a mark identical to, or substantially similar to, the genuine mark of a motor vehicle manufacturer or a supplier of parts to the manufacturer of a motor vehicle without authorization from that manufacturer or supplier, respectively.
(5) “Motor vehicle” is as defined by § 101(41) of Title 21.
(6) “Nonfunctional airbag” means a replacement airbag that meets any of the following criteria:
a. The airbag was previously deployed or damaged;
b. The airbag has an electric fault that is detected by the vehicle’s airbag diagnostic systems when the installation procedure is completed and the vehicle is returned to the customer who requested the work to be performed or when ownership is intended to be transferred;
c. The airbag includes a part or object, including a supplemental restraint system component, that is installed in a motor vehicle to mislead the owner or operator of the motor vehicle into believing that a functional airbag has been installed; or
d, The airbag is subject to the prohibitions of 49 U.S.C. § 30120(j).
(7) “Pattern of violations” means 3 or more violations within a 1-year period.
(8) “Person” includes an individual, corporation, statutory trust, business trust, estate, trust, partnership, association, 2 or more persons having a joint or common interest or any other legal or commercial entity.
(9) “Supplemental restraint system” means a passive inflatable motor vehicle occupant crash protection system designed for use in conjunction with a seat belt as defined in 49 CFR 571.209. A supplemental restraint system includes 1 or more airbags and all components required to ensure that an airbag works as designed by the vehicle manufacturer including both of the following:
a. The airbag operates as designed in the event of a crash; and
b. The airbag is designed to meet federal motor vehicle safety standards for the specific make, model, and year of the vehicle in which it is or will be installed.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2; 73 Del. Laws, c. 329, § 39; 83 Del. Laws, c. 205, § 1; 83 Del. Laws, c. 505, § 1;
(a) Deception, fraud, false pretense, false promise, misrepresentation or the concealment, suppression or omission of any material fact with the intent that others rely upon such concealment, suppression or omission of any material fact in connection with auto repair work by any automotive repair facility, whether or not any person has in fact been misled, deceived or damaged thereby, or the act, use or employment by any auto repair facility of a deceptive trade practice in connection with auto repair work shall constitute an unlawful practice.
(b) Acts or practices by an automotive repair facility prohibited by subsection (a) of this section shall include but are not limited to:
(1) Refusing to return a customer’s motor vehicle because the customer refused to pay for unauthorized auto repair work in violation of § 4907A of this title;
(2) Misrepresenting that auto repair work has been made to a motor vehicle;
(3) Misrepresenting that auto repair work is necessary to a motor vehicle repair;
(4) Misrepresenting that the motor vehicle is in a dangerous condition or that the customer’s continued use of the vehicle may be harmful or cause significant damage to the vehicle;
(5) Misrepresenting that the motor vehicle will or will not pass state inspection requirements or is not otherwise in compliance with state or federal requirements in connection with soliciting auto repair work;
(6) Performing unauthorized auto repair work in connection with a misrepresentation;
(7) Installing or reinstalling in a motor vehicle any object in lieu of an operative air bag including a counterfeit supplemental restraint system component or a nonfunctional airbag;
(8) Selling, installing or reinstalling any device that causes the vehicle’s diagnostic systems to fail to warn when the vehicle is equipped with a counterfeit supplemental restraint system component, nonfunctional airbag, or when no airbag is installed.
(9) Fraudulently altering any customer contract, estimate, invoice or other document;
(10) Fraudulently misusing a customer’s credit card; or
(11) Engaging in a pattern of violations of § 4904A, § 4905A, § 4906A or § 4907A of this title or violating § 4904A, § 4905A, § 4906A or § 4907A of this title with the intent to hinder the discovery of practices or acts prohibited by this section.
(c) A person shall not knowingly manufacture, import, distribute, sell, or offer for sale any device intended to replace a supplemental restraint system component in any motor vehicle if the device is a counterfeit supplemental restraint system component, a nonfunctional airbag, or a device that causes a vehicle to fail to meet federal motor vehicle safety standards as provided in 49 CFR 571.208.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2; 74 Del. Laws, c. 277, § 1; 83 Del. Laws, c. 205, § 2;
(a) Written estimate and authorization requirements. — Unless waived pursuant to subsection (b) of this section by the customer or by a person the auto repair facility reasonably believes is acting on the customer’s behalf, the automotive repair facility shall, before beginning any auto repair work and/or transmission repair diagnosis on a motor vehicle, give the customer a written statement which contains:
(1) The estimated completion date;
(2) The estimated price for the auto repair work including parts and labor; and
(3) The estimated surcharge, if any.
(b) Oral estimates and authorization. — If a customer or a person the auto repair facility reasonably believes is acting on the customer’s behalf, waives his or her right to a written estimate, the automotive repair facility shall orally provide to the customer or a person the automotive repair facility reasonably believes to be acting on a customer’s behalf the estimated price and completion date before beginning any auto repair work; provided however, that the person giving the oral estimate shall make a written record of the requirements set forth in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section, sign or initial the written document and retain such document for a period of no less than 2 years.
(c) Prohibited charges. — An automotive repair facility shall not charge a customer without the consent of the customer or a person the automotive repair facility reasonably believes is acting on behalf of the customer any amount which exceeds the estimate by 20% or $50, whichever is less. Any charges which exceed 20% or $50, whichever is less, must comply with the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of this section.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1;
(a) Work description. — An automotive repair facility shall prepare an invoice which describes in all material respects:
(1) Auto repair work done by it, including all warranty work;
(2) All parts supplied by it;
(3) All labor performed by it. To the extent a charge for labor is not based on actual hours worked, the invoice shall specify that the labor charge is based on a flat rate. Notwithstanding the above, if the labor charge is part of a packaged price product, such as an oil change, the invoice need not specify the labor component of that charge; and
(4) All auto repair work that is performed by persons other than the auto repair facility. The auto repair facility shall retain the name, address and telephone number of such other persons performing auto repair work and disclose such information upon request of the customer or a person it reasonably believes to be acting on the customer’s behalf.
(b) Used, rebuilt or reconditioned parts. — The invoice shall state clearly if any used, rebuilt or reconditioned parts were used in the auto repair work and/or if a part of a component system supplied is composed of used, rebuilt or reconditioned parts.
(c) Copies of invoices. — The automotive repair facility shall give the customer a copy of the invoice and retain a copy for no less than 2 years.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2;
An automotive repair facility shall offer to return all replaced parts to the customer or a person acting on his or her behalf, except parts which are returned to a manufacturer or distributor, hazardous materials or other items which the automotive repair facility is otherwise required to properly dispose of or recycle. Nothing herein shall require the auto repair facility to retain replaced parts after final invoice.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1;
An automotive repair facility may not charge a customer for repairs not originally authorized or requested by the customer, or a person the auto repair facility reasonably believes is acting on the customer’s behalf, unless the automotive repair facility receives written or oral permission from the customer in conformance with this chapter. To the extent a charge does not exceed an estimate by 20% or $50, whichever is less, no cause of action pursuant to § 4909A(c) of this title shall accrue. Nothing in this section shall preclude enforcement pursuant to § 4903A(b)(6) and (10) of this title.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2; 83 Del. Laws, c. 205, § 2;
(a) All auto repair shops not otherwise complying with subsection (b) of this section shall post a sign, in a manner conspicuous to the public, which states as follows:
(1) The customer is entitled to receive a written or oral estimate;
(2) No auto repair work charge may exceed the estimate without the customer’s consent;
(3) The facility shall offer to return to the consumer all replaced parts except those under warranty or trade-in parts returned to a manufacturer or distributor; and
(4) Complaints can be made to the Consumer Protection and Fraud Division of the Delaware Department of Justice.
(b) To the extent an auto repair facility does not post a sign pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, an automotive repair facility shall, prior to performing auto repair work, disclose to the customer on a separate document or the written estimate itself the following language:
“PLEASE READ CAREFULLY
CHECK ONE OF THE STATEMENTS BELOW AND SIGN
I UNDERSTAND THAT, UNDER STATE LAW, I AM ENTITLED TO A WRITTEN ESTIMATE. ________ I REQUEST A WRITTEN ESTIMATE. ________ I REQUEST AN ORAL ESTIMATE. ________ I DO NOT REQUEST A WRITTEN ESTIMATE AS LONG AS THE REPAIR COSTS DO NOT EXCEED $________. THE SHOP MAY NOT EXCEED THIS AMOUNT WITHOUT MY WRITTEN OR ORAL APPROVAL. ________ I WAIVE MY RIGHT TO AN ESTIMATE.
SIGNED __________________ DATE __________________ ”
The above language shall be in bold typeset at least as large as the size of the print in the main body of the document. The requirements of this section shall be effective as of January 1, 1997.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2;
(a) The Attorney General shall have the same authority in enforcing, remedying, and otherwise carrying out the provisions of this chapter as is provided by Chapter 25 of Title 29 and by §§ 2511-2527 and 2531-2536 of this title.
(b) Any violation of § 4903A of this title shall be deemed an unlawful practice in violation of § 2513 of this title.
(c) Transactions where an automotive repair facility has violated the requirements of §§ 4903A, 4904A, 4905A, 4906A and/or 4907A of this title shall be voidable by the consumer in actions brought in the Justice of Peace Courts. In successful actions brought by consumers under this subsection, the automotive repair facility shall be liable to the customer for twice the amount of any consideration obtained in violation of this chapter and the costs of the action; provided however, that the customer must first allow the auto repair facility the opportunity to resolve the dispute prior to filing an action under this subsection; and the Court may further award a customer reasonable attorneys’ fees.
Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit a person from otherwise seeking a recovery in an action for damages against an automotive repair facility in a court of competent jurisdiction.
(d) The remedies and penalties provided for in this section are not exclusive and shall be in addition to any other procedures, rights or remedies which exist with respect to any other provisions of law including, but not limited to, state and/or federal criminal prosecutions and/or common law or statutory actions brought by private parties.70 Del. Laws, c. 428, § 2; 77 Del. Laws, c. 282, § 13;