Health and Safety
Food and Drugs
CHAPTER 47. Uniform Controlled Substances Act
Subchapter I. Definitions
As used in this chapter:
(1) “Addicted” or “addiction” shall mean dependence upon a drug in the following manner:
a. Psychological dependence upon a drug in the sense that the user lacks the ability to abstain from taking or using the drug or experiences a compulsive need to continue its use; and
b. A tolerance to the effects of the drug which leads the user to require larger and more potent doses; and
c. Such physical dependence upon the drug that the user suffers withdrawal symptoms if the user is deprived of its dosage.
(2) “Administer” means the direct application of a controlled substance, whether by injection, inhalation, ingestion or any other means to the body of a patient or research subject by:
a. A practitioner (or, in the practitioner’s presence, by the practitioner’s authorized agent); or
b. The patient or research subject at the direction and in the presence of the practitioner.
(3) “Administration” means the Drug Enforcement Administration, United States Department of Justice or its successor agency.
(4) “Agent” means an authorized person who acts on behalf of or at the direction of a manufacturer, distributor or dispenser. It does not include a common or contract carrier, public warehouseperson or employee of the carrier or warehouseperson.
(5) “Anabolic steroid” means any of the controlled substances defined in § 4718(f) of this title.
(6) “Benzodiazepine” means any substance or drug which contains a benzene ring fused to a 7-member diazepine ring, results in the depression of the central nervous system and is primarily intended to treat insomnia, convulsions and anxiety, and used for muscle relaxation and pre-operation treatment including alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, and temazepam.
(7) “Controlled substance” means a drug, substance or immediate precursor in Schedules I through V of subchapter II of this chapter. For purposes of the crimes set forth in subchapters IV and V of this chapter, and of forfeiture set forth in § 4784 of this title, “controlled substance” includes “designer drug”, as defined in paragraph (10) of this section.
(8) “Counterfeit controlled substance” means a controlled substance which, or the container or labeling of which, without authorization, bears the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, number or device or any likeness thereof, of a manufacturer, distributor or dispenser other than the person who in fact manufactured, distributed or dispensed the substance.
(9) “Deliver” or “delivery” means the actual, constructive or attempted transfer from one person to another of a controlled substance, whether or not there is an agency relationship.
(10) “Designer drug” means a substance that has a chemical structure substantially similar to that of a controlled substance or that was specifically designed to or may produce an effect substantially similar to that of a controlled substance. Examples of chemical classes in which “designer drugs” are found include, but are not limited to, the following: Phenethylamines, N-substituted piperidines, morphinans, ecgonines, quinazolinones, substituted indoles, arylcycloalkylamines, cannabinoids, cathinones, and any synthetic analogue of a controlled substance. “Designer drug” does not include any substance that was manufactured, delivered or dispensed in conformance with an approved new drug application, or an exemption for investigating use within the meaning of § 505 of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 355), or that was manufactured, delivered or dispensed in conformance with a registration issued by the Attorney General of the United States within the meaning of §§ 301-304 of the Federal Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 821-824).
(11) “Dispense” means to deliver a controlled substance to an ultimate user or research subject by or pursuant to the lawful order of a practitioner, including the prescribing for a legitimate medical purpose by an individual practitioner in the usual course of the practitioner’s professional practice, administering, packaging, labeling or compounding necessary to prepare the substance for that delivery.
(12) “Dispenser” means a practitioner who dispenses.
(13) “Distribute” means to deliver other than by administering or dispensing a controlled substance.
(14) “Distributor” means a person who distributes.
(15) “Dose” means an amount or unit of a compound, mixture, or preparation containing a controlled substance that is separately identifiable and in a form that indicates that it is the amount or unit by which the controlled substance is separately administered to or taken by an individual. A dose includes, but is not limited to: a pill; a capsule; a tablet; or a vial.
(16) “Drug” means (i) substances recognized as drugs in the official United States Pharmacopoeia, official Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States or official National Formulary or any supplement to any of them; (ii) substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in man or animals; (iii) substances (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or animals; and (iv) substances intended for use as a component of any article specified in clause (i), (ii) or (iii) of this paragraph. It does not include devices or their components, parts or accessories.
(17) “Drug detection animal trainer” means all persons, not classified as a practitioner, pharmacy, distributor, manufacturer or researcher, but under the classification of “Other Controlled Substance Registrants.” This registrant shall have formal training and may train animals for drug detection using controlled substances listed under the registration. These registrants shall have equipment and a site appropriate for registration.
(18) “Drug paraphernalia” shall mean all equipment, products and materials of any kind which are used, intended for use or designed for use, in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing, harvesting, manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing, preparing, testing, analyzing, packaging, re-packaging, storing, containing, concealing, injecting, ingesting, inhaling or otherwise introducing into the human body, a controlled substance the manufacture, delivery, possession or use of which is in violation of this chapter. The term “drug paraphernalia” includes, but is not limited to:
a. Kits used, intended for use or designed for use in planting, propagating, cultivating, growing or harvesting of any species of plant which is a controlled substance, the use, cultivation, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter or from which such a controlled substance can be derived;
b. Kits used, intended for use or designed for use in manufacturing, compounding, converting, producing, processing or preparing controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
c. Isomerization devices used, intended for use or designed for use in increasing the potency of any species of plant which is a controlled substance, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
d. Testing equipment used, intended for use or designed for use in identifying, or in analyzing the strength, effectiveness or purity of controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
e. Scales and balances used, intended for use or designed for use in weighing or measuring controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
f. Diluents and adulterants, such as quinine hydrochloride, mannitol, mannite, dextrose or lactose, which are used, intended for use or designed for use in cutting controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
g. Separation gins and sifters used, intended for use or designed for use in removing twigs and seeds from, or otherwise cleaning or refining, marijuana;
h. Blenders, bowls, containers, spoons and mixing devices used, intended for use or designed for use in compounding controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
i. Capsules, balloons, envelopes and other containers used, intended for use or designed for use in packaging small quantities of controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
j. Containers or other objects used, intended for use or designed for use in storing or concealing controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter;
k. Hypodermic syringes, needles and other objects used, intended for use or designed for use in parenterally injecting controlled substances, the use, manufacture, delivery or possession of which is in violation of this chapter; and
l. Objects used, intended for use or designed for use in ingesting, inhaling or otherwise introducing marijuana, cocaine, hashish or hashish oil into the human body such as:
1. Metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic or ceramic pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads or punctured metal bowls;
2. Water pipes;
3. Carburetion tubes and devices;
4. Smoking and carburetion masks;
5. Roach clips or objects used to hold burning material, such as a marijuana cigarette, that has become too small or too short to be held in the hand;
6. Miniature cocaine spoons, and cocaine vials;
7. Chamber pipes;
8. Carburetor pipes;
9. Electric pipes;
10. Air-driven pipes;
12. Bongs; and
13. Ice pipes or chillers.
(19) “Finished drug product” means a drug legally marketed under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 321 et seq.) that is in finished dosage form.
(20) “Finished product” means any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of a controlled or noncontrolled substance.
(21) “Human growth hormone” is synonymous with the term “human chorionic gonadotropin.”
(22) “Immediate precursor” means a substance which the Secretary has found to be and by rule designates as being the principal compound commonly used or produced primarily for use, and which is an immediate chemical intermediary used or likely to be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, the control of which is necessary to prevent, curtail or limit manufacture.
(23) “Isomer” means the optical isomer, except as used in § 4714(d) of this title and § 4716(b)(4) of this title. As used in § 4714(d) of this title, the term “isomer” means the optical positional or geometric isomer. As used in § 4716(b)(4) of this title, the term “isomer” means the optical or geometric isomer.
(24) “Knowingly” means a person acts knowingly with respect to any delivery, possession, use or consumption within the meaning of this chapter when the person knows or is aware of such delivery, possession, use or consumption. The person’s knowledge may be inferred by the trier of fact from the surrounding circumstances, considering whether a reasonable person in the defendant’s circumstances would have had such knowledge. A prima facie case of knowledge is established upon the introduction of some evidence of the surrounding circumstances from which a reasonable juror might infer the defendant’s knowledge.
(25) “Lawful prescription or order” means a prescription or order that is issued for a legitimate medical purpose by a licensed and registered practitioner pursuant to a “patient-practitioner relationship” as defined in this section, that is not obtained by misrepresentation, fraud, forgery, deception or subterfuge, and is distributed or dispensed in conformity with § 4739 of this title.
(26) “Licensed practitioner” means any individual who is authorized by law to prescribe drugs in the course of professional practice or research in any state.
(27) “Manufacture” means the production, preparation, propagation, compounding, conversion or processing of a controlled substance, either directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis and includes any packaging or repackaging of the substance or labeling or relabeling of its container except that this term does not include the preparation or compounding of a controlled substance by an individual for the individual’s own use or the preparation, compounding, packaging or labeling of a controlled substance:
a. By a practitioner as an incident to the practitioner’s administering or dispensing of a controlled substance in the course of the practitioner’s professional practice; or
b. By a practitioner, or by the practitioner’s authorized agent under the practitioner’s supervision, for the purpose of, or as an incident to, research, teaching or chemical analysis and not for delivery.
(28) “Marijuana” means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L., whether growing or not, the seeds thereof, the resin extracted from any part of the plant, and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of the plant, its seeds or resin. It does not include the mature stalks of the plant, fiber produced from the stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of the plant, or any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture or preparation of the mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil or cake, or the sterilized seed of the plant which is incapable of germination. Marijuana does not include products approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.
(29) “Narcotic drug” means any of the following, whether produced directly or indirectly by extraction from substances of vegetable origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis:
a. Opium opiates, derivatives of opium and opiates, including their isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers, whenever the existence of such isomers, esters, ethers and salts is possible within the specific chemical designation. Such term does not include isoquinoline alkaloids of opium.
b. Poppy straw and concentrate of poppy straw.
c. Coca leaves, except coca leaves and extracts of coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine and derivatives of ecgonine or their salts have been removed.
d. Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers.
e. Ecgonine, its derivatives, their salts and salts of isomers.
f. Any compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of any of the substances referred to in paragraphs (29)a. through e. of this section.
(30) “Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic” means any zaleplon, zolpidem, and any schedule II or schedule III drug, as defined by the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S. C. § 812(c) and 21 C.F.R. 1308, which produces effects similar to that of a benzodiazepine.
(31) “Opiate” means any substance having an addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability similar to morphine or being capable of conversion into a drug having addiction-forming or addiction-sustaining liability. It does not include, unless specifically designated as controlled under § 4711 of this title, the dextrorotatory isomer of 3-methoxy-n-methylmorphinan and its salts (dextromethorphan). It does include its racemic and levorotatory forms.
(32) “Opium poppy” means the plant of the species Papaver somniferum L., except its seeds.
(33) “Other controlled substance registrants” means all persons and firms, except persons or firms exempt from registration, who are not classified as pharmacies, distributors, manufacturers, practitioners or researchers. Examples of persons or firms in this classification include, but are not limited to, analytical laboratories and drug detection animal trainers, having a legitimate need to use “controlled substances” as defined in this section.
(34) “Patient-practitioner relationship” means, with respect to prescribing drugs for a patient, that the practitioner is a licensed practitioner who:
a. Has conducted at least 1 in-person medical evaluation of the patient and performed a medical history and physical examination sufficient to establish a diagnosis and to identify underlying conditions of, or contraindications to, the treatment recommended or provided; or
b. Personally knows the patient and the patient’s general health status through an existing patient-practitioner relationship; or
c. Provides treatment in consultation with or upon referral of another practitioner who has an existing patient-practitioner relationship with the patient and who has agreed to supervise the patient’s treatment, including follow-up care and use of the prescribed medications; or
d. Provides treatment to the patient through an on-call or cross-coverage situation for another practitioner who has an existing patient-practitioner relationship with the patient; or
e. Provides continuing medications on a short-term basis for a new patient prior to the first appointment; or
f. Provides treatment based upon admission orders for a newly hospitalized patient.
(35) “Person” means individual, corporation, government or governmental subdivision or agency, statutory trust, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, or any other legal entity.
(36) “Personal use quantity” shall mean 1 ounce or less of marijuana in the form of leaf marijuana. “Leaf marijuana” means the dried leaves and flowering tops of the plant cannabis sativa L.
(37) “Poppy straw” means all parts, except the seeds of the opium poppy, after mowing.
(38) “Possession,” in addition to its ordinary meaning, includes location in or about the defendant’s person, premises, belongings, vehicle or otherwise within the defendant’s reasonable control.
(39) “Practitioner” means:
a. A physician, dentist, veterinarian, scientific investigator or other person licensed, registered or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or to administer a controlled substance in the course of professional practice or research in this State.
b. A pharmacy, hospital or other institution licensed, registered, or otherwise permitted to distribute, dispense, conduct research with respect to or to administer a controlled substance in the course of its professional practice or research in this State.
(40) “Prescribe” means to give an order for medication or other therapy by authorized personnel which is dispensed to or for an ultimate user but does not include an order for medication which is dispensed for immediate administration to the ultimate user.
(41) “Prescription drug” means any drug required by federal or state law or regulation to be dispensed only by or on the prescription of a practitioner licensed to prescribe drugs, or which is restricted to use by practitioners only.
(42) “Prescription drug order” means any written, verbal, or electronic order of a practitioner for a prescription drug issued in accordance with regulations promulgated under this chapter.
(43) “Production” includes the manufacturing, planting, cultivating, growing or harvesting of a controlled substance.
(44) “Proof of age” means a document issued by a governmental agency that gives the person’s date of birth including a passport, military identification card, or driver’s license.
(46) “Protected school zone” means either of the following:
a. Any building, structure, athletic playing field, playground, or other land contained on the property of a public or private kindergarten, elementary, secondary, or vocational-technical school.
b. Any area accessible to the public located within 300 feet of the property of a public or private kindergarten, elementary, secondary, or vocational-technical school, or any parked vehicle located within 300 feet of the property of a public or private kindergarten, elementary, secondary, or vocational-technical school.
For the purposes of this section, an “area accessible to the public” includes: sidewalks; streets; parking lots; parks; playgrounds; stores and restaurants; and any other outdoor locations such as front porches or front yards.
(47) “Purported controlled substance” means any substance that is:
a. Expressly or impliedly represented to be a controlled substance; or
b. Expressly or impliedly represented to be of such nature that another person will be able to distribute or use the substance as a controlled substance.
(48) “Researcher” means all persons and firms, not a practitioner, who routinely performs scholarly or scientific investigations or inquiries.
(49) “Secretary” means Secretary of the Department of State or the Secretary’s designee in paragraph (22) of this section; §§ 4711; 4713; 4715; 4717; 4718(l); 4719; 4720(c); 4721; 4731; 4732; 4733; 4734(a) and (b); 4735 (b), (c) and (d); 4736(a) and (b); 4737; 4738; 4739(b); 4762(e)(2); 4781(1); 4782; 4783(b); 4785; 4786; 4787(b), (c), (d), (e) and 4791(d) of this title.
“Secretary” means Secretary of the Department of Safety and Homeland Security of the State or the Secretary’s designee in §§ 4740; 4781(2), (3) and (4); 4783(a) and (c); 4784; and 4787(a) of this title.
“Secretary” means Secretary of the Department of Health and Social Services or the Secretary’s designee in § 4740B of this title.
(50) “State,” when applied to a part of the United States, includes any state, district, commonwealth, territory, insular possession thereof and any area subject to the legal authority of the United States of America.
(51) “Ultimate user” means a person who lawfully possesses a controlled substance for the person’s own use or for the use of a member of the person’s household or for administering to an animal owned by the person or by a member of the person’s household.
(52) “Vehicle” shall have the same definition as that set forth in § 101(87) of Title 21.16 Del. C. 1953, § 4701; 58 Del. Laws, c. 424, § 1; 59 Del. Laws, c. 132, § 1; 60 Del. Laws, c. 583, § 1; 62 Del. Laws, c. 250, § 3; 62 Del. Laws, c. 252, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 287, §§ 1-3; 67 Del. Laws, c. 384, §§ 3-6; 70 Del. Laws, c. 81, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 71 Del. Laws, c. 288, §§ 1, 12; 73 Del. Laws, c. 329, § 59; 74 Del. Laws, c. 288, § 2; 75 Del. Laws, c. 350, § 193(b); 76 Del. Laws, c. 81, § 35; 77 Del. Laws, c. 155, §§ 1-3; 78 Del. Laws, c. 13, §§ 21-29; 78 Del. Laws, c. 61, § 1; 78 Del. Laws, c. 204, §§ 1, 2; 79 Del. Laws, c. 66, § 1; 79 Del. Laws, c. 164, § 1; 80 Del. Laws, c. 38, § 1; 80 Del. Laws, c. 136, § 1; 80 Del. Laws, c. 168, § 1; 80 Del. Laws, c. 264, § 1; 81 Del. Laws, c. 410, § 1; 82 Del. Laws, c. 93, § 1; 82 Del. Laws, c. 217, § 1; 83 Del. Laws, c. 169, § 1; 83 Del. Laws, c. 505, § 1;