TITLE 7

Conservation

Natural Resources

CHAPTER 63. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

Subchapter I. Hazardous Waste


(a) The General Assembly finds that:

(1) Continuing technological progress, increases in the amounts of manufacture and the abatement of air and water pollution have resulted in ever-increasing quantities of hazardous wastes;

(2) The public health and safety and the environment are threatened where hazardous wastes are not managed in an environmentally sound manner and where there are no commercial hazardous waste management facilities available;

(3) The knowledge and technology necessary to alleviate adverse health, environmental and aesthetic impacts resulting from current hazardous waste management and disposal practices are believed to be generally available at costs within the financial capability of those who generate such wastes, but that such knowledge and technology are not widely used;

(4) The problem of managing hazardous wastes has become a matter of statewide concern.

(b) Therefore, it is hereby declared that the purposes of this chapter are:

(1) To protect the public health and safety, the health of organisms and the environment from the effects of the improper, inadequate or unsound management of hazardous wastes;

(2) To establish a program of regulation over the storage, transportation, treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes; and

(3) To assure the safe and adequate management of hazardous wastes within this State.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 66 Del. Laws, c. 364, § 1.;

The following words and phrases shall have the meaning ascribed to them in this chapter unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

(1) "Activity" means construction, operation or use of any facility, site, property or device.

(2) "Commission" means the Commission on the Transportation of Hazardous Materials.

(3) "Department" means the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control of the State.

(4) "Disposal" means the discharge, deposit, injection, dumping, spilling, leaking or placing of any hazardous waste into or on any land, water or into the air so that such hazardous waste or any constituent thereof may enter the environment to be emitted into the air, or discharged into any water, including groundwaters, or any other management of hazardous wastes in which the handler voluntarily relinquishes control of the waste in a manner inconsistent with the requirements of this chapter and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

(5) "Division" means the Division of Waste and Hazardous Substances.

(6) "Generation" means the act or process of producing hazardous waste materials.

(7) "Hazardous waste management" means the systematic control of the collection, source separation, storage, transportation, processing, treatment, recovery and disposal of hazardous waste.

(8) "Hazardous wastes" means a solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, which because of its quantity, concentration, or physical or chemical characteristics may cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating irreversible illness, or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of, or otherwise managed.

(9) "Manifest" means the form used for identifying the quantity, composition, origin, routing and destination of hazardous waste during its transport.

(10) "Person" means an individual, trust, firm, joint stock company, federal agency, corporation (including a government corporation), partnership, association, state, municipality, commission, political subdivision of a state or any interstate body.

(11) "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, or his or her duly authorized designee.

(12) "Solid waste" means any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid or contained gaseous material resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities, but does not include solid or dissolved material in domestic sewage, or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges which are point sources subject to permits under Chapter 60 of this title, as amended, or source, special nuclear or by-product material as defined by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], as amended.

(13) "Storage" means the containment of hazardous wastes, either on a temporary basis or for a period of years, in such manner as not to constitute disposal of such hazardous wastes.

(14) "Transfer facility" means any transportation-related facility including loading docks, parking areas, storage areas and other similar areas where shipments of hazardous waste are held during the normal course of transportation.

(15) "Transport" means the movement of wastes from the point of generation to the point of storage, treatment or disposal.

(16) "Treatment" means any method, technique or process, including neutralization, designed to change the physical, chemical or biological character or composition of any hazardous waste, so as to neutralize such waste or so as to render such waste nonhazardous, safer for transport, amenable to recovery, amenable to storage or reduced in volume.

(17) "Treatment facility" means a location at which waste is subjected to treatment and may include a facility upon premises where hazardous waste has been generated.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 63 Del. Laws, c. 164, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 430, § 1; 66 Del. Laws, c. 140, § 1; 66 Del. Laws, c. 364, § 2; 67 Del. Laws, c. 140, §§ 1, 2; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 240, § 1; 77 Del. Laws, c. 430, § 59; 78 Del. Laws, c. 127, § 11.;

(a) The Department is authorized to study and investigate the problems of hazardous waste control and management in Delaware, and shall develop and publish after public hearing a statewide hazardous waste management plan, which shall include, but not be limited to:

(1) A description of the sources of hazardous waste generation within the State, including the types and quantities of such wastes, and the location of hazardous waste generators, disposal facilities and storage sites;

(2) A description of current hazardous waste management practices and costs, including treatment and disposal, within the State;

(3) An informational reporting system of hazardous waste quantities generated and disposed of in the State;

(4) Criteria for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities;

(5) Information on methods of reuse, recycling and reduction of hazardous wastes, including the feasibility of establishing facilities, institutions or requirements for the purpose of encouraging the reuse, recycling, reduction and utilization of hazardous wastes for useful purposes.

(b) In carrying out any studies or investigations under this section, the Department shall seek the cooperation and advice of the Delaware Solid Waste Authority.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3.;

(a) No person shall generate, store, transport, treat or dispose of hazardous wastes in this State without reporting such activity to the Department as required by this chapter and regulations promulgated hereunder.

(b) No person shall generate, store, treat, transport or dispose of hazardous wastes within this State except in compliance with this chapter and regulations hereunder.

(c) Information obtained by the Department under § 6305(a)(10) of this title or pursuant to any other provisions of this chapter shall be available to the public as provided in Chapter 100 of Title 29, unless the Department certifies such information to be proprietary. The Department may make such certification where any person shows to the satisfaction of the Department that the information, or parts thereof, if made public, would divulge methods, processes or activities entitled to protection as trade secrets. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting the disclosure of information by the Department to any officer, employee or authorized representative of the state or federal government concerned with effecting this chapter or the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, Pub. L. 94-580, as amended from time to time [42 U.S.C. § 6901 et seq.]. Prior to disclosure of proprietary information to an authorized representative who is not an officer or employee of the state or federal government, the person providing the proprietary information may require the representative to sign an agreement prohibiting disclosure of such information to anyone not authorized by this chapter or the terms of the agreement. Such agreement shall not preclude disclosure by the representative to any state or federal government officer or employee concerned with effecting this chapter or Pub. L. 94-580, as amended.

(d) It shall be unlawful for any person to destroy, alter or conceal any records maintained and in existence as of July 11, 1980, with respect to any generation, treatment, disposal, storage or transportation of hazardous waste during or subsequent to any such operation. This requirement applies equally to facilities and sites closed prior to July 11, 1980. The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation terms and conditions upon which records shall be kept, including the period of retention.

(e) The Secretary shall issue such orders as may be necessary to carry out his or her duties under this chapter.

(f) Except with respect to its powers as set forth in the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, §§ 8223-8230 of Title 29, the Commission shall serve in an advisory capacity to the Secretary and may consider all matters relating to the implementation of this chapter and regulations promulgated thereunder.

(g) No person shall transport or deliver hazardous waste to any facility operated by or on behalf of the Delaware Solid Waste Authority, except to the extent authorized by the Authority with respect to small quantity source separated designated materials which are delivered to recycling centers for disposal in an authorized manner.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 63 Del. Laws, c. 372, § 1; 67 Del. Laws, c. 432, § 6; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Secretary shall, after notice and public hearing, promulgate and revise as appropriate:

(1)a. Criteria, consistent with those promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under § 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, Pub. L. 94-580 [42 U.S.C. § 6921], for identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste and for listing hazardous waste; and

b. Regulations identifying the characteristics of hazardous waste and listing particular hazardous wastes (within the meaning of paragraph (8) of § 6302 of this title based on the criteria promulgated in paragraph (a)(1)a. of this section;

(2) Regulations for the transport, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous waste, including regulations regarding contingency plans for effective action to minimize unanticipated damage from the transport, treatment, storage or disposal of such hazardous waste and regulations prescribing conditions and time periods upon which generators may accumulate hazardous wastes on site without a permit and such other regulations as are necessary to assure that substances identified or listed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section which pass through a sewer system to a publicly owned treatment works are adequately controlled to protect human health and the environment;

(3) Regulations setting forth requirements for approval or permit applications and specifying the terms and conditions, including duration and schedules of compliance, under which the Department shall issue, modify, review, suspend, revoke or deny such approvals or permits as may be required by this chapter and regulations providing that permits issued after November 8, 1984, or regulations which, in the case of interim status facilities under § 6307(g) of this title, require corrective action both on site and beyond the facility boundary, if necessary to protect human health and the environment, for releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any solid waste management unit at a facility seeking a permit under this chapter, regardless of when the waste was placed in the unit. Such permits shall contain schedules of compliance for corrective action (where such corrective action cannot be completed prior to issuance of the permit) and assurances of financial responsibility for completing the corrective action, and, in addition, regulations relating to qualifying for and termination of interim status under § 6307(g) of this title;

(4) Regulations establishing standards and procedures for the safe operation and maintenance of hazardous waste transfer, treatment, storage and disposal facilities or sites, including requirements for closing, long-term care and termination of transfer, treatment, storage and disposal facilities or sites and regulations regarding the prohibition of disposal of nonhazardous liquids in hazardous waste disposal facilities except upon such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe. The Secretary may, where appropriate, establish separate standards for new and existing sites. Requirements may be adopted under this paragraph applicable to facilities and sites closed prior to July 11, 1980, which requirements shall be applicable to former and present owners and operators, as may be deemed appropriate;

(5) Regulations specifying those hazardous wastes which are not compatible, and which may not be stored or disposed of together without appropriate prior treatment to make them compatible;

(6) Regulations establishing procedures and requirements for the reporting of the generation, storage, transportation, treatment or disposal of hazardous wastes;

(7) Regulations establishing standards and procedures for the training of personnel engaged in treatment, storage or disposal activities at hazardous waste sites or facilities;

(8) Regulations establishing procedures and requirements for the use of a manifest during the transport of hazardous wastes and during such other phases of hazardous waste management as the Secretary deems necessary;

(9) Regulations which may provide for a reasonable schedule of fees for payment to the Department by hazardous waste transporters and owners of treatment, storage or disposal facilities or sites to defray the cost of administering this chapter. Any fees collected under this paragraph shall be appropriated to the Department for purposes of administering this chapter. Such regulations shall not provide for any annual fee under this paragraph in excess of $10,000 or in the case of small business concerns, any annual fee under this paragraph in excess of $500;

(10) Regulations which prescribe:

a. The establishment and maintenance of such records, including period of retention;

b. The making of such reports;

c. The taking of such samples and the performing of such tests or analyses;

d. The installing, calibrating, using and maintaining of such monitoring equipment or methods; and

e. The providing of such other information as may be necessary to achieve the purposes of this chapter;

(11) Regulations setting forth criteria regarding the level of financial responsibility required for hazardous waste management facilities and criteria pertaining to appropriate measures for preventing damage to public health, safety and the environment under § 6307(h)(2) of this title and regulations requiring evidence of financial responsibility to assure adequate resources for corrective action both on and off site;

(12) Regulations regarding the reuse, recycling and reduction of hazardous waste including regulations prohibiting the use of waste oil or other materials contaminated with hazardous waste as a dust suppressant and regulations pertaining to fuel containing hazardous waste and all persons who produce, burn, distribute and market fuel containing hazardous waste;

(13) Regulations, applicable to generators of hazardous waste, as may be necessary to protect human health and the environment, including regulations on recordkeeping practices to identify the types, quantities and constituents of hazardous waste generated and the disposition of those wastes; regulations on use of appropriate containers for hazardous waste; regulations regarding the furnishing of information of the chemical composition of hazardous waste to persons involved in the management of such hazardous waste; regulations on the use of a manifest system by generators; regulations on submission of reports to the Secretary regarding quantities and disposition of hazardous waste generated during a particular period;

(14) Regulations regarding pre-operation review and inspection of hazardous waste management facilities;

(15) Regulations regarding location, design, construction and remedial action standards for hazardous waste management facilities;

(16) Regulations regarding such public notice and hearing requirements and other related matters as may be deemed necessary to maintain equivalence of the State's program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, Pub. L. 94-580 [42 U.S.C. § 6901 et seq.], including requirements for public notice of draft permits, for public comment periods and requests for hearings and for informal hearings.

(b) In complying with this section, the Secretary may consider the variations within the State in geology, population density and such other facts as may be relevant to the management of hazardous wastes.

(c) The Secretary, in consultation with the Commission and after notice and public hearings, shall issue regulations for the transportation, containerization and labeling of hazardous wastes. Such regulations shall be consistent with and no more stringent than applicable rules or regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation, and consistent with and no more stringent than any other regulations issued pursuant to this chapter and the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act of 1979, §§ 8223-8230 of Title 29.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 63 Del. Laws, c. 164, § 2; 64 Del. Laws, c. 164, §§ 1-4; 65 Del. Laws, c. 320, §§ 1-5; 65 Del. Laws, c. 483, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 516, § 1; 66 Del. Laws, c. 364, § 3.;

(a) Within 90 days of the effective date of regulations promulgated under this chapter setting forth criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous wastes and listing hazardous wastes, any person generating or transporting hazardous waste within this State shall submit to the Department a description of the source of the hazardous wastes, including the types and quantities thereof, and the location of the generating facility, as well as the storage and disposal sites.

(b) Any person generating hazardous waste shall comply with all requirements, as set forth in regulations under this chapter, respecting accurate identification through labeling practices of any containers used for the storage, transport or disposal of such hazardous wastes.

(c) Any person generating or transporting hazardous waste shall, in accordance with duly promulgated regulations, use a manifest system to assure that all hazardous waste generated is designated for treatment, storage or disposal in facilities (other than facilities on the premises where the waste is generated) for which a permit has been issued pursuant to this chapter or pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-580, as amended) [42 U.S.C. § 6901 et seq.].

(d) Any person generating any solid waste shall be responsible for any testing necessary to determine whether any material generated by them is a hazardous waste according to Department approved testing procedures.

(e) This chapter and regulations applicable to transporters of hazardous waste shall apply equally to those persons transporting hazardous wastes generated by others and to those transporting hazardous wastes they have generated themselves, or combinations thereof, as well as to persons transporting hazardous waste into, through or out of the State.

(f) Any person transporting hazardous waste must report a hazardous waste discharge to appropriate officials and clean up any hazardous waste discharge that occurs during transportation or take such other action as may be required or approved by appropriate officials so that the discharge no longer presents a hazard to human health or the environment.

(g) Any person transporting hazardous waste who owns, operates or utilizes a hazardous waste transfer facility for storage of in-transport hazardous waste shall do so in accordance with the Delaware Regulations Governing Hazardous Wastes.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 64 Del. Laws, c. 162, § 5; 66 Del. Laws, c. 140, § 2; 66 Del. Laws, c. 364, §§ 4, 5; 70 Del. Laws, c. 240, §§ 2, 3.;

(a) Within 90 days of the effective date of regulations promulgated under this chapter setting forth criteria for identifying the characteristics of hazardous wastes and listing hazardous wastes, any person owning or operating, substantially altering or constructing a hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facility or site shall report such activity to the Department, together with a description of the facility, the types and quantities of any solid and hazardous wastes treated, stored or disposed of, the location of the facility, the storage or disposal capacity of the facility and the source of the wastes treated, stored or disposed of.

(b) Beginning 180 days after the effective date of regulations adopted for this purpose, no person shall construct, substantially alter, own or operate any hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facility or site, nor shall any person store, treat or dispose of any hazardous waste without first obtaining a permit from the Secretary for such facility, site or activity, except that generators may accumulate hazardous wastes on site without a permit for such periods and upon such conditions as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.

(c) Any person desiring to obtain a permit required under this section shall submit an application therefor in such form and accompanied by such plans, specifications and other information as required by applicable statute or regulation, including the requirements of subsection (h) of this section.

(d) Permits issued under this section shall be issued under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations promulgated under the authority of § 6305 of this title.

(e) Operating permits shall be issued for a period of time as prescribed by regulations and may be revoked by the Secretary for failure to comply with the requirements of this chapter and regulations thereunder.

(f) Any permit issued under this section may be revoked by the Secretary at any time when the permittee fails to comply with the terms and conditions of the permit, provided, that no permit shall be revoked until the Secretary has provided the permittee with the opportunity for an adequate hearing, and with written notice of the intent of the Secretary to revoke the permit and the reasons for such revocation. Any appeal from an order of the Secretary revoking any permit shall not operate to stay the revocation.

(g) Any person who:

(1) Owns or operates a facility required to have a permit under this section which facility is in existence on the effective date of regulations under § 6305(a) of this title or which is in existence on the effective date of statutory or regulatory changes under this chapter that render the facility subject to the requirement to have a permit under this chapter;

(2) Has complied with the requirements of subsection (a) of this section; and

(3) Has made an application for a permit under this section

shall be treated as having been issued such permit until such time as final administrative disposition of such application is made, unless the Secretary or other plaintiff proves that final administrative disposition of such application has not been made because of the failure of the applicant to furnish information reasonably required or requested in order to process the application.

(h) No permit shall be issued to operate any hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facility or site except as provided in subsection (g) of this section, unless that facility or site submits to the Department the following:

(1) Evidence of financial responsibility including liability insurance in such form and amount as the Department may determine pursuant to duly promulgated regulations, to be necessary to insure that during operation or upon abandonment, cessation or interruption of the operation of the facility or site, all appropriate measures are taken to remedy or prevent present and future damage to the public health and safety to the environment.

(2) Evidence that the personnel engaged in the treatment, disposal or storage of hazardous wastes have met such qualifications as to training as the Department may prescribe pursuant to § 6305(a)(7) of this title.

(i) Any person acquiring rights of ownership, possession or operation in a facility or site granted a permit under this section for the disposal, storage or treatment of hazardous waste at any time after the site or facility has been granted a permit or has begun to accept such waste shall, in addition to the original permittee, be subject to all requirements of the permit approved for the site or the facility, including the requirements of subsection (j) of this section. Upon acquisition of the rights, and application to the Department, the Department shall issue a new permit if the previous permittee is no longer connected with the operation of the site or facility and if the proposed permittee meets all requirements of the applicable statutes and regulations.

(j) The owner or operator of a permitted facility or site must conduct such maintenance, monitoring and surveillance during operation, upon closure, abandonment, cessation or interruption of the operation of the facility or site, as the Secretary deems necessary to protect the public health and to prevent or control air, land, water or groundwater pollution.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 64 Del. Laws, c. 162, §§ 6-9; 65 Del. Laws, c. 320, § 6.;

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary, upon receipt of information that the storage, transportation, treatment or disposal of any hazardous waste may present an imminent and substantial hazard to the health of persons or to the environment, may take such action as he or she determines to be necessary to protect the health of such persons or the environment. The action the Secretary may take includes, but is not limited to:

(1) Issuing an order directing the operator of the treatment, storage or disposal facility or site, or the custodian of such hazardous waste, to take such steps as are necessary to prevent the act or eliminate the practice which constitutes such hazard. Such action may include, with respect to a facility or site, permanent or temporary cessation of operation;

(2) Issuing an order directing the persons who previously owned or operated a treatment, storage or disposal facility or site which constitutes such hazard and who are determined by the Secretary to be responsible for activities causing the hazard, to take such steps as are necessary to prevent or eliminate the hazard;

(3) Enforcement action pursuant to § 6309 of this title;

(4) Directing Department personnel to undertake emergency cleanup and remedial measures. The Secretary may recover the costs of such measures from the responsible party;

(5)a. A Hazardous Waste/Groundwater Cleanup Revolving Fund is hereby established for the purpose of providing the funds to expeditiously undertake the investigation of and conduct necessary remedial measures to mitigate instances of groundwater contamination or accidents which may pose a significant threat to human health and/or the environment.

b. All revenues recovered under this section shall be retained by the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control and placed in the Hazardous Waste/Groundwater Cleanup Revolving Fund. Expenditures from this Fund shall be controlled by the Appropriated Special Funds portion of the annual Budget Act.

c. In the event that the revolving fund is expended and the Department requires additional funding to address hazardous waste/groundwater contamination incidents which may pose significant threats to human health and/or the environment, the Secretary may petition the Secretary of Public Safety for additional funds under § 8232 of Title 29 (hazardous substance spill cleanup).

d. The Secretary of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control must report annually to the Governor and the General Assembly on or before July 1 all expenditures from this Fund, receipts collected, ongoing litigation and its current balance.

e. The General Fund start-up moneys shall be a continuing appropriation until June 30, 1990. The Department may request additional funding for this purpose during the normal budgetary process when they project that the initial balance cannot be maintained due to protracted litigations.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 64 Del. Laws, c. 123, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 47, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a)(1) Whenever on the basis of any information the Secretary determines that any person is in violation of any requirement of this chapter, any condition or limitation in a transfer facility approval or permit or variance issued thereunder or any rule or regulation, the Secretary shall give notice to the violator of his or her failure to comply with such requirement. If such violation extends beyond the thirtieth day after the Secretary's notification, the Secretary may issue an order requiring compliance within a specified time period.

(2) If such violator fails to take corrective action within the time specified in the order, he or she shall be liable for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day of continued noncompliance and the Secretary may suspend or revoke any transfer facility approval or permit issued to the violator.

(3) Any order or any suspension or revocation of a transfer facility approval or permit shall become final unless, no later than 30 days after the order or notice of the suspension or revocation is served, the person or persons named therein request a public hearing. Upon such request, the Secretary shall conduct a public hearing in accordance with § 6312 of this title. In connection with any proceeding under this paragraph the Secretary may issue subpoenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books and documents, and may promulgate rules for discovery procedures.

(4) Any order issued under this section shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the violation and specify a time for compliance and assess a penalty, if any, which the Secretary determines is reasonable taking into account the seriousness of the violation and any good faith efforts to comply with the applicable requirements.

(b) In lieu of the compliance order procedures in subsection (a) of this section, any person who violates a provision of this chapter, any condition or limitation in a transfer facility approval or permit issued pursuant to this chapter, any variance condition or limitation, any rule or regulation or any order of the Secretary shall be liable for a civil penalty of not less than $1,000 nor more than $25,000 for each day of violation. The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of offenses under this subsection.

(c) If the violation is threatened or continuing or if there is a substantial likelihood that it will reoccur, or if the Department receives information that the generation, storage, transportation, treatment or disposal of a hazardous waste presents an imminent and substantial hazard to public health or to the environment, the Secretary may, in addition to or in lieu of any other remedy provided in this chapter, seek a temporary restraining order or a preliminary or permanent injunction in the Court of Chancery.

(d) In any action brought under subsection (c) of this section, in addition to any equitable relief granted by the Court of Chancery, the Court may, in the exercise of its ancillary jurisdiction, impose a civil penalty as provided for in subsection (b) of this section.

(e) In any civil action brought in the Court of Chancery pursuant to this section in which a temporary restraining order, a preliminary injunction or a permanent injunction is sought, upon a showing by the Secretary that a person has engaged in the acts or practices to be enjoined or restrained, a permanent or preliminary injunction, restraining order or other order may be granted.

(f) Any person who, with criminal negligence with respect to the following: violates any provision of or fails to perform any duty imposed by this chapter, or who violates any provisions of or fails to perform any duty imposed by a rule, regulation, order or any facility permit adopted or issued under this chapter, is guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $10,000, or imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, or both. The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of offenses under this subsection.

(g) Any person who knowingly, with respect to the following: violates any provision of or fails to perform any duty imposed by this chapter, or who violates any provision of or fails to perform any duty imposed by a rule, regulation, order or any facility permit adopted or issued under this chapter, is guilty, if such violation causes the release of hazardous waste into the environment, of a misdemeanor and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $25,000, or imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both. The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of offenses under this subsection.

(h) Any person who knowingly commits any of the following offenses is guilty of a felony and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $50,000, or imprisonment not exceeding 2 years, or both:

(1) Dumping, discharging, abandoning or disposing into the environment, a hazardous waste in any place other than an authorized hazardous waste facility for which a current facility permit is in effect;

(2) Transporting for treatment, storage or disposal a hazardous waste to any place other than an authorized hazardous waste facility for which a current facility permit is in effect; or

(3) Authorizing, directing or participating in any offense listed in this subsection.

(i) Any person who knowingly with respect to the following: transports, treats, stores, exports or otherwise disposes of a hazardous waste in a manner that would constitute a violation under subsection (h) of this section and who knows at that time that the violation places another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury is guilty of a felony and on conviction is subject to a fine not exceeding $100,000, or imprisonment not exceeding 5 years, or both. For purposes of this subsection, in determination whether a person's state of mind is knowing and whether a person knew that the violation or conduct placed another person in imminent danger of death or serious bodily injury, the criteria provided under § 3008(f) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. § 6928(f) as amended in P.L. 99-499) shall apply.

(j) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement, representation or certification in any application, record, report, plan, manifest, label or other document filed or required to be maintained under this chapter, or under any transfer facility approval or permit, regulation or order issued under this chapter, or who falsifies, tampers with or knowingly renders inaccurate any monitoring device or method required to be maintained under this chapter, shall upon conviction be punished by a fine of not less than $500 nor more than $25,000, or by imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both. If the conviction is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this subsection, punishment shall be by a fine of not more than $50,000 per day of violation, or by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or by both. The Superior Court shall have jurisdiction of offenses under this subsection.

(k) The terms used in this section which pertain to criminal violations shall have the same meanings as such terms are defined in Title 11. No person shall be prosecuted for criminal violations under this section if such person is exercising a right of appeal under this chapter with respect to a requirement which serves as the basis for the violation.

(l) Each day of violation as specified in any action pursuant to the above subsections shall constitute a separate violation.

(m) Whenever on the basis of any information the Secretary determines that there is or has been a release of hazardous waste into the environment from any facility, the Secretary may issue an order requiring corrective action or such other response measure (including corrective action beyond the facility boundary) as the Secretary deems necessary to protect human health or the environment or the Secretary may commence a civil action in the Superior Court or the Court of Chancery for appropriate relief, including a temporary or permanent injunction. Any order issued under this subsection may include a suspension or revocation of authorization to operate under this chapter, shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the required corrective action or other response measure, and shall specify a time for compliance. If any person named in an order fails to comply with the order, the Secretary may assess, and such person shall be liable to the Department for, civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $25,000 for each day of noncompliance with the order.

(n) Any expenses or civil penalties collected by the Department under this section are hereby appropriated to the Department to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

62 Del. Laws, c. 412, § 3; 64 Del. Laws, c. 162, § 10; 65 Del. Laws, c. 320, §§ 7, 8; 66 Del. Laws, c. 364, §§ 6-8; 69 Del. Laws, c. 366, §§ 2, 3; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;