TITLE 6

Commerce and Trade

SUBTITLE II

Other Laws Relating to Commerce and Trade

CHAPTER 15. DELAWARE REVISED UNIFORM PARTNERSHIP ACT

Subchapter IV. Relations of Partners to Each Other and to Partnership


(a) Each partner is deemed to have an account that is:

(1) Credited with an amount equal to the money plus the value of any other property, net of the amount of any liabilities, the partner contributes to the partnership and the partner's share of the partnership profits; and

(2) Charged with an amount equal to the money plus the value of any other property, net of the amount of any liabilities, distributed by the partnership to the partner and the partner's share of the partnership losses.

(b) Each partner is entitled to an equal share of the partnership profits and is chargeable with a share of the partnership losses in proportion to the partner's share of the profits.

(c) In addition to indemnification under § 15-110 of this title, a partnership shall reimburse a partner for payments made and indemnify a partner for liabilities incurred by the partner in the ordinary course of the business of the partnership or for the preservation of its business or property; however, no person shall be required as a consequence of any such indemnification to make any payment to the extent that the payment is inconsistent with § 15-306(b) or (c) of this title.

(d) A partnership shall reimburse a partner for an advance to the partnership beyond the amount of capital the partner agreed to contribute.

(e) A payment or advance made by a partner which gives rise to a partnership obligation under subsection (c) or (d) of this section constitutes a loan to the partnership which accrues interest from the date of the payment or advance.

(f) Each partner has equal rights in the management and conduct of the partnership business and affairs.

(g) A partner may use or possess partnership property only on behalf of the partnership.

(h) A partner is not entitled to remuneration for services performed for the partnership, except for reasonable compensation for services rendered in winding up the partnership.

(i) A person may become a partner only with the consent of all of the partners.

(j) A difference arising as to a matter in the ordinary course of business of a partnership may be decided by a majority of the partners. An act outside the ordinary course of business of a partnership may be undertaken only with the consent of all of the partners.

(k) This section does not affect the obligations of a partnership to other persons under § 15-301 of this title.

(l ) A partner has the power and authority to delegate to 1 or more other persons any or all of the partner's rights, powers and duties to manage and control the business and affairs of the partnership. Any such delegation may be to agents, officers and employees of the partner or the partnership, and by a management agreement or other agreement with, or otherwise to, other persons. Such delegation by a partner shall be irrevocable if it states that it is irrevocable. Such delegation by a partner shall not cause the partner to cease to be a partner of the partnership or cause the person to whom any such rights, powers and duties have been delegated to be a partner of the partnership. No other provision of this chapter shall be construed to restrict a partner's power and authority to delegate any or all of its rights, powers and duties to manage and control the business and affairs of the partnership.

(m) A partner shall have no preemptive right to subscribe to any additional issue of partnership interests or another interest in a partnership.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1; 73 Del. Laws, c. 296, §§ 7, 8; 80 Del. Laws, c. 43, §§ 3, 4; 81 Del. Laws, c. 87, § 2.;

A partner, regardless of the nature of the partner's contribution, has no right to demand and receive any distribution from a partnership in kind. A partner may not be compelled to accept a distribution of any asset in kind from a partnership to the extent that the percentage of the asset distributed to the partner exceeds a percentage of that asset which is equal to the percentage in which the partner shares in distributions from the partnership. A partner may be compelled to accept a distribution of any asset in kind from a partnership to the extent that the percentage of the asset distributed to the partner is equal to a percentage of that asset which is equal to the percentage in which the partner shares in distributions from the partnership.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1.;

(a) Each partner and the partnership shall provide partners, former partners and the legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability and their agents and attorneys, access to the books and records of the partnership and other information concerning the partnership's business and affairs (in the case of former partners, only with respect to the period during which they were partners) upon reasonable demand, for any purpose reasonably related to the partner's interest as a partner in the partnership. The right of access shall include access to:

(1) True and full information regarding the status of the business and financial condition of the partnership;

(2) Promptly after becoming available, a copy of the partnership's federal, state and local income tax returns for each year;

(3) A current list of the name and last known business, residence or mailing address of each partner;

(4) A copy of any statement and written partnership agreement and all amendments thereto, together with executed copies of any written powers of attorney pursuant to which the statement or the partnership agreement and any amendments thereto have been executed;

(5) True and full information regarding the amount of cash and a description and statement of the agreed value of any other property or services contributed by each partner and which each partner has agreed to contribute in the future, and the date on which each partner became a partner; and

(6) Other information regarding the affairs of the partnership as is just and reasonable.

The right of access includes the right to examine and make extracts from books and records and other information concerning the partnership's business and affairs. The partnership agreement may provide for, and in the absence of such provision in the partnership agreement, the partnership or the partner from whom access is sought may impose, reasonable standards (including standards governing what information and documents are to be furnished at what time and location and at whose expense) with respect to exercise of the right of access.

(b) A partnership agreement may provide that the partnership shall have the right to keep confidential from partners for such period of time as the partnership deems reasonable, any information which the partnership reasonably believes to be in the nature of trade secrets or other information the disclosure of which the partnership in good faith believes is not in the best interest of the partnership or could damage the partnership or its business or affairs or which the partnership is required by law or by agreement with a third party to keep confidential.

(c) A partnership and its partners may maintain the books and records and other information concerning the partnership in other than a written form if such form is capable of conversion into written form within a reasonable time.

(d) Any demand by a partner or by a partner's attorney or other agent under this section shall be in writing and shall state the purpose of such demand. In every instance where an attorney or other agent shall be the person who seeks a right of access to the information described in subsection (a) of this section, the demand shall be accompanied by a power of attorney or such other writing which authorizes the attorney or other agent to so act on behalf of the partner.

(e) Any action to enforce any right arising under this section shall be brought in the Court of Chancery. If the partnership or a partner refuses to permit access as described in subsection (a) of this section or does not reply to a demand that has been made within 5 business days (or such shorter or longer period of time as is provided for in a partnership agreement but not longer than 30 business days) after the demand has been made, the demanding partner, former partner, or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability may apply to the Court of Chancery for an order to compel such disclosure. The Court of Chancery is hereby vested with exclusive jurisdiction to determine whether or not the person making the demand is entitled to the books and records or other information concerning the partnership's business and affairs sought. The Court of Chancery may summarily order the partnership or partner to permit the demanding partner, former partner or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability and their agents and attorneys to provide access to the information described in subsection (a) of this section and to make copies or extracts therefrom; or the Court of Chancery may summarily order the partnership or partner to furnish to the demanding partner, former partner or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability and their agents and attorneys the information described in subsection (a) of this section on the condition that the partner, former partner or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability first pay to the partnership or to the partner from whom access is sought the reasonable cost of obtaining and furnishing such information and on such other conditions as the Court of Chancery deems appropriate. When a demanding partner, former partner or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability seeks to obtain access to information described in subsection (a) of this section, the demanding partner, former partner or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability shall first establish (1) that the demanding partner, former partner or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability has complied with the provisions of this section respecting the form and manner of making demand for obtaining access to such information and (2) that the information the demanding partner, former partner or legal representative of a deceased partner or partner under a legal disability seeks is reasonably related to the partner's interest as a partner in the partnership. The Court of Chancery may, in its discretion, prescribe any limitations or conditions with reference to the access to information, or award such other or further relief as the Court of Chancery may deem just and proper. The Court of Chancery may order books, documents and records, pertinent extracts therefrom, or duly authenticated copies thereof, to be brought within the State of Delaware and kept in the State of Delaware upon such terms and conditions as the order may prescribe.

(f) The rights of a partner to obtain information as provided in this section may be restricted in an original partnership agreement or in any subsequent amendment approved or adopted by all of the partners or in compliance with any applicable requirements of the partnership agreement.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1; 73 Del. Laws, c. 85, § 9; 77 Del. Laws, c. 289, §§ 9, 10; 79 Del. Laws, c. 301, § 1.;

(a) The only fiduciary duties a partner owes to the partnership and the other partners are the duty of loyalty and the duty of care set forth in subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) A partner's duty of loyalty to the partnership and the other partners is limited to the following:

(1) To account to the partnership and hold as trustee for it any property, profit or benefit derived by the partner in the conduct or winding up of the partnership business or affairs or derived from a use by the partner of partnership property, including the appropriation of a partnership opportunity;

(2) To refrain from dealing with the partnership in the conduct or winding up of the partnership business or affairs as or on behalf of a party having an interest adverse to the partnership; and

(3) To refrain from competing with the partnership in the conduct of the partnership business or affairs before the dissolution of the partnership.

(c) A partner's duty of care to the partnership and the other partners in the conduct and winding up of the partnership business or affairs is limited to refraining from engaging in grossly negligent or reckless conduct, intentional misconduct, or a knowing violation of law.

(d) A partner does not violate a duty or obligation under this chapter or under the partnership agreement solely because the partner's conduct furthers the partner's own interest.

(e) A partner may lend money to, borrow money from, act as a surety, guarantor or endorser for, guarantee or assume 1 or more specific obligations of, provide collateral for and transact other business with, the partnership and, subject to other applicable law, has the same rights and obligations with respect thereto as a person who is not a partner.

(f) This section applies to a person winding up the partnership business or affairs as the personal or legal representative of the last surviving partner as if the person were a partner.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1; 74 Del. Laws, c. 266, § 5.;

(a) A partnership may maintain an action against a partner for a breach of the partnership agreement, or for the violation of a duty to the partnership, causing harm to the partnership.

(b) A partner may maintain an action against the partnership or another partner for legal or equitable relief, with or without an accounting as to partnership business, to:

(1) Enforce the partner's rights under the partnership agreement;

(2) Enforce the partner's rights under this chapter, including:

(i) The partner's rights under § 15-401, § 15-403 or § 15-404 of this title;

(ii) The partner's right on dissociation to have the partner's interest in the partnership purchased pursuant to § 15-701 of this title or enforce any other right under subchapter VI or VII of this chapter; or

(iii) The partner's right to compel a dissolution and winding up of the partnership business under § 15-801 of this title or enforce any other right under subchapter VIII of this chapter; or

(3) Enforce the rights and otherwise protect the interests of the partner, including rights and interests arising independently of the partnership relationship.

(c) The accrual of, and any time limitation on, a right of action for a remedy under this section is governed by other law. A right to an accounting upon a dissolution and winding up does not revive a claim barred by law.

(d) A partner may bring a derivative action in the Court of Chancery in the right of a partnership to recover a judgment in the partnership's favor.

(e) In a derivative action, the plaintiff must be a partner at the time of bringing the action and:

(1) At the time of the transaction of which the partner complains; or

(2) The partner's status as a partner had devolved upon the partner by operation of law or pursuant to the terms of the partnership agreement from a person who was a partner at the time of the transaction.

(f) In a derivative action, the complaint shall set forth with particularity the effort, if any, of the plaintiff to secure initiation of the action by the partnership or the reason for not making the effort.

(g) If a derivative action is successful, in whole or in part, as a result of a judgment, compromise or settlement of any such action, the court may award the plaintiff reasonable expenses, including reasonable attorney's fees, from any recovery in any such action or from a partnership.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1.;

(a) If a partnership for a definite term or particular undertaking is continued, without an express agreement, after the expiration of the term or completion of the undertaking, the rights and duties of the partners remain the same as they were at the expiration or completion, so far as is consistent with a partnership at will.

(b) If the partners, or those of them who habitually acted in the business or affairs during the term or undertaking, continue the business or affairs without any settlement or liquidation of the partnership, they are presumed to have agreed that the partnership will continue.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1.;

(a) A partnership agreement may provide for classes or groups of partners having such relative rights, powers and duties as the partnership agreement may provide, and may make provision for the future creation in the manner provided in the partnership agreement of additional classes or groups of partners having such relative rights, powers and duties as may from time to time be established, including rights, powers and duties senior to existing classes and groups of partners. A partnership agreement may provide for the taking of an action, including the amendment of the partnership agreement, without the vote or approval of any partner or class or group of partners, including an action to create under the provisions of the partnership agreement a class or group of partnership interests that was not previously outstanding. A partnership agreement may provide that any partner or class or group of partners shall have no voting rights.

(b) The partnership agreement may grant to all or certain identified partners or a specified class or group of the partners the right to vote separately or with all or any class or group of the partners on any matter. Voting by partners may be on a per capita, number, financial interest, class, group or any other basis.

(c) A partnership agreement may set forth provisions relating to notice of the time, place or purpose of any meeting at which any matter is to be voted on by any partners, waiver of any such notice, action by consent without a meeting, the establishment of a record date, quorum requirements, voting in person or by proxy, or any other matter with respect to the exercise of any such right to vote.

(d) Meetings of partners may be held by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this subsection shall constitute presence in person at the meeting. On any matter that is to be voted on, consented to or approved by partners, the partners may take such action without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote if consented to or approved, in writing, by electronic transmission or by any other means permitted by law, by partners having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all partners entitled to vote thereon were present and voted. If a person (whether or not then a partner) consenting as a partner to any matter provides that such consent will be effective at a future time (including a time determined upon the happening of an event), then such person shall be deemed to have consented as a partner at such future time so long as such person is then a partner. On any matter that is to be voted on by partners, the partners may vote in person or by proxy, and such proxy may be granted in writing, by means of electronic transmission or as otherwise permitted by applicable law. A consent transmitted by electronic transmission by a partner or by a person or persons authorized to act for a partner shall be deemed to be written and signed for purposes of this subsection (d). For purposes of this subsection (d), the term "electronic transmission'' means any form of communication not directly involving the physical transmission of paper that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved and reviewed by a recipient thereof and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

(e) If a partnership agreement provides for the manner in which it may be amended, including by requiring the approval of a person who is not a party to the partnership agreement or the satisfaction of conditions, it may be amended only in that manner or as otherwise permitted by law, including as permitted by § 15-902(g) of this title (provided that the approval of any person may be waived by such person and that any such conditions may be waived by all persons for whose benefit such conditions were intended). If a partnership agreement does not provide for the manner in which it may be amended, the partnership agreement may be amended with the approval of all the partners or as otherwise permitted by law, including as permitted by § 15-902(g) of this title. A supermajority amendment provision shall only apply to provisions of the partnership agreement that are expressly included in the partnership agreement. As used in this section, "supermajority amendment provision'' means any amendment provision set forth in a partnership agreement requiring that an amendment to a provision of the partnership agreement be adopted by no less than the vote or consent required to take action under such latter provision.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1; 72 Del. Laws, c. 390, § 16; 73 Del. Laws, c. 85, § 10; 74 Del. Laws, c. 266, § 6; 75 Del. Laws, c. 416, § 6; 77 Del. Laws, c. 59, § 8; 78 Del. Laws, c. 98, §§ 7, 8; 79 Del. Laws, c. 301, § 2; 80 Del. Laws, c. 43, §§ 5, 6; 80 Del. Laws, c. 270, § 1.;

A partnership agreement may provide that (i) a partner who fails to perform in accordance with, or to comply with the terms and conditions of, the partnership agreement shall be subject to specified penalties or specified consequences, and (ii) at the time or upon the happening of events specified in the partnership agreement, a partner shall be subject to specified penalties or specified consequences. Such specified penalties or specified consequences may include and take the form of any penalty or consequence set forth in § 15-207(b) of this title.

72 Del. Laws, c. 151, § 1; 72 Del. Laws, c. 390, § 17; 73 Del. Laws, c. 85, § 11.;

(a) A liquidating trustee of a partnership (including a limited liability partnership) shall be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the records of the partnership and upon information, opinions, reports or statements presented by a partner of the partnership, an officer or employee of the partnership, another liquidating trustee, or committees of the partnership or partners, or by any other person as to matters the liquidating trustee reasonably believes are within such other person's professional or expert competence, including information, opinions, reports or statements as to the value and amount of assets, liabilities, profits or losses of the partnership, or the value and amount of assets or reserves or contracts, agreements or other undertakings that would be sufficient to pay claims and obligations of the partnership or to make reasonable provision to pay such claims and obligations, or any other facts pertinent to the existence and amount of assets from which distributions to partners or creditors might properly be paid.

(b) A partner of a limited liability partnership shall be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the records of the partnership and upon information, opinions, reports or statements presented by another partner of the partnership, an officer or employee of the partnership, a liquidating trustee, or committees of the partnership or partners, or by any other person as to matters the partner reasonably believes are within such other person's professional or expert competence, including information, opinions, reports or statements as to the value and amount of assets, liabilities, profits or losses of the partnership, or the value and amount of assets or reserves or contracts, agreements or other undertakings that would be sufficient to pay claims and obligations of the partnership or to make reasonable provision to pay such claims and obligations, or any other facts pertinent to the existence and amount of assets from which distributions to partners or creditors might properly be paid.

(c) A partner of a partnership that is not a limited liability partnership shall be fully protected from liability to the partnership, its partners or other persons party to or otherwise bound by the partnership agreement in relying in good faith upon the records of the partnership and upon information, opinions, reports or statements presented by another partner of the partnership, an officer or employee of the partnership, a liquidating trustee, or committees of the partnership or partners, or by any other person as to matters the partner reasonably believes are within such other person's professional or expert competence, including information, opinions, reports or statements as to the value and amount of assets, liabilities, profits or losses of the partnership, or the value and amount of assets or reserves or contracts, agreements or other undertakings that would be sufficient to pay claims and obligations of the partnership or to make reasonable provision to pay such claims and obligations, or any other facts pertinent to the existence and amount of assets from which distributions to partners or creditors might properly be paid.

75 Del. Laws, c. 50, § 4.;