§ 1-101 Short titles.
(a) This subtitle may be cited as the Uniform Commercial Code.
(b) This article may be cited as Uniform Commercial Code — General Provisions.
§ 1-102 Scope of article.
This article applies to a transaction to the extent that it is governed by another article of the Uniform Commercial Code.
§ 1-103 Construction of Uniform Commercial Code to promote its purposes and policies; applicability of supplemental principles of law.
(a) The Uniform Commercial Code must be liberally construed and applied to promote its underlying purposes and policies, which are:
(1) To simplify, clarify, and modernize the law governing commercial transactions;
(2) To permit the continued expansion of commercial practices through custom, usage, and agreement of the parties; and
(3) To make uniform the law among the various jurisdictions.
(b) Unless displaced by the particular provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code, the principles of law and equity, including the law merchant and the law relative to capacity to contract, principal and agent, estoppel, fraud, misrepresentation, duress, coercion, mistake, bankruptcy, and other validating or invalidating cause supplement its provisions.
§ 1-104 Construction against implied repeal.
The Uniform Commercial Code being a general act intended as a unified coverage of its subject matter, no part of it shall be deemed to be impliedly repealed by subsequent legislation if such construction can reasonably be avoided.
§ 1-105 Severability.
If any provision or clause of the Uniform Commercial Code or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity does not affect other provisions or applications of the Uniform Commercial Code which can be given effect without the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code are severable.
§ 1-106 Use of singular and plural; gender.
In the Uniform Commercial Code, unless the statutory context otherwise requires:
(1) Words in the singular number include the plural, and those in the plural include the singular; and
(2) Words of any gender also refer to any other gender.
§ 1-107 Section captions.
Section captions are part of the Uniform Commercial Code.
§ 1-108 Relation to electronic signatures in Global and National Commerce Act.
This subtitle modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, (15 U.S.C. § 7001, et seq.) but does not modify, limit, or supersede § 101(c) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7001(c)) or authorize electronic delivery of any of the notices described in § 103(b) of that act (15 U.S.C. § 7003(b)).