TITLE 21

Motor Vehicles

Registration, Title and Licenses

CHAPTER 21. REGISTRATION OF VEHICLES

Subchapter I. General Provisions


(a) No person shall drive or move, nor shall any person, being the owner of a vehicle, knowingly permit to be driven or moved upon any highway any vehicle, except trackless trolley coaches, of a type required to be registered hereunder, which is not registered and for which current registration plates have not been issued as provided in this chapter or for which the appropriate fees have not been paid when and as required by this chapter, except that when application accompanied by the proper fee has been made for registration and certificate of title for a vehicle, the same may be operated temporarily pending complete registration upon displaying a duplicate application duly verified or other evidence of such application or otherwise under rules and regulations promulgated by the Department.

(b) A motor vehicle or vehicle being towed by a motor vehicle registered as a tow truck or wrecker shall not be in violation of subsection (a) of this section or § 2115 of this title if such towed vehicle has 1 end hoisted off the ground while being towed. The term tow truck or wrecker does not apply to a vehicle registered as a truck tractor.

(c) A motor vehicle or vehicle being operated on public roadways for the purpose of being transported between the Wilmington Port Authority and short-term parking areas within 1 mile of the facility's gates need not be registered. These vehicles must have insurance that meets the minimum requirements of § 2118 of this title, before they are operated on any public roadway.

(d) Notwithstanding any law or regulation to the contrary, a motor vehicle need not be registered and shall not be in violation of § 2115 of this title, if the vehicle is being driven by a repair technician for drive cycle testing, certified under the Delaware Emission Education Program ("DEEP") who has in that technician's possession:

(1) A permit issued by the Department of Natural Resources permitting such operation;

(2) Testing equipment for an on board diagnostic test is installed in the vehicle; and

(3) The operator has evidence of a current and applicable garage keeper's policy on hand, evidencing insurance coverage available for such operation.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 7; Code 1935, § 5545; 47 Del. Laws, c. 265; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2101; 49 Del. Laws, c. 220, § 20; 63 Del. Laws, c. 339, § 1; 74 Del. Laws, c. 130, § 1; 77 Del. Laws, c. 293, § 1.;

(a) Every owner of a motor vehicle, trailer, or other vehicle shall, within 60 days after taking up residence in this State, apply to the Secretary and obtain registration for the vehicle. Vehicle owners who have apportioned power units registered in Delaware under the International Registration Plan are exempt from the requirement to register their trailers in accordance with the International Registration Plan agreement. Members of the military and their families who have vehicles registered in their home state are also exempt from this requirement.

(b) Whoever violates subsection (a) of this section shall be fined for the first offense not less than $400 nor more than $600. For each subsequent like offense, such person shall be fined not less than $800 nor more than $1,200, or imprisoned not less than 10 days nor more than 30 days, or both.

Code 1935, § 5546A; 48 Del. Laws, c. 293, § 1; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2102; 57 Del. Laws, c. 670, § 8A; 60 Del. Laws, c. 385, § 1; 64 Del. Laws, c. 466, § 5; 65 Del. Laws, c. 503, § 3; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 77 Del. Laws, c. 335, § 1.;

The Department may, in its discretion, grant temporary or limited registration permits, in no case to be valid for more than 15 days, and may issue appropriate certificates or other evidence therefor as listed below:

(1) When application for a certificate of title has been made accompanied by the proper fee, a temporary permit without additional fee may be issued pending action upon such application by the Department;

(2) During suspension of registration because of failure of the vehicle upon inspection to meet the legal performance requirements or equipment standards, a temporary permit without additional fee may be issued to allow the vehicle to be driven away to be repaired and returned for inspection or to be driven to a storage place;

(3) When a registration has expired, a temporary permit may be issued upon the payment of a fee of $10 in addition to the regular fee for reregistration so that the vehicle may be driven to a place for repair, if necessary, and to an inspection station preparatory to reregistration;

(4) For the movement of unregistered vehicles by persons entitled to move the same, when it is not proposed to secure a certificate of title or a transfer of title to such vehicle, a temporary permit may be issued for which a fee of $10 shall be charged;

(5) For moving vehicles of which the ownership has been transferred by process of law as provided in §§ 2501-2507 of this title, a permit may be issued without charge.

(6) Trip permit registrations pursuant to the International Registration Plan, as authorized in Chapter 4 of this title, may be issued for any vehicle or combination of vehicles which could lawfully operate in this State if full registration or proportional registration were obtained. A permit for this purpose shall be valid for 3 days, including the day issued, for which a fee of $15 shall be charged.

Code 1935, § 5546A; 43 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 3; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2103; 53 Del. Laws, c. 221, § 1; 67 Del. Laws, c. 260, § 1; 68 Del. Laws, c. 156, § 57(a), (b); 70 Del. Laws, c. 202, § 1.;

(a) Every owner of a vehicle desiring registration shall make application to the Department for the registration thereof upon the appropriate form or forms furnished by the Department. Every such application shall bear the signature of the owner written with pen and ink, and the signature shall be acknowledged by the owner before a person authorized to administer oaths.

(b) The application shall contain:

(1) The name and address of the owner: When the owner is an individual, the address shall be the bona fide residence of the individual; when the owner is a partnership, association, trust or corporation, the address shall be that of the principal office thereof wherever located together with the address of the principal office within this State, if any;

(2) A description of the vehicle including, insofar as the following specified data may exist with respect to a given vehicle, the make, model, color, type of body, the serial number of the vehicle, or any number as may be assigned by the Department, and whether new or used and, if a new vehicle, the date of sale by the manufacturer or dealer to the person intending to operate said vehicle;

(3) Such further information as may reasonably be required by the Department to enable it to determine whether the vehicle is lawfully entitled to registration;

(4) The Department shall allow the registration of trailers for individuals who are not bona fide residents of Delaware if the individual provides documented proof of ownership of a residence in Delaware and signs a declaration indicating the trailer will remain in Delaware at all times.

(c) In the event that the vehicle for which registration is applied is a specially constructed, reconstructed or a foreign vehicle, such fact shall be stated in the application, and with reference to every foreign vehicle which has been registered theretofore outside of this State, the owner shall surrender to the Department all registration cards and certificates of title or other evidence of such foreign registration or ownership as may be in the owner's possession or under the owner's control, except where in the course of interstate operation of a vehicle registered in another state it is desirable to retain registration of the vehicle in such other state, such applicant need not surrender, but shall submit for inspection, evidences of such foreign registration or ownership, and the Department upon a proper showing may register the vehicle in this State, but shall not issue a certificate of title therefor.

(d)(1) The Department shall allow the registration of motor vehicles owned by individuals who are not bona fide residents of Delaware upon presentation of an affidavit by the applicant, on a form approved by the Department, swearing or affirming:

a. That the vehicle is principally garaged in Delaware;

b. That the applicant is the owner of at least 1 other vehicle which is registered and insured in the state of the applicant's domicile; and

c. To such other information not inconsistent with this subsection as may be deemed appropriate by the Department or the Insurance Commissioner.

(2) An affiant shall notify the Division of Motor Vehicles and the affiant's automobile insurance company of any changes in the above conditions within 30 calendar days from the date of change.

(3) The penalties prescribed by Chapter 24 of Title 18 shall apply to a violation of this subsection.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 8; 37 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 3; Code 1935, § 5546; 43 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 2; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2104; 50 Del. Laws, c. 182, § 1; 62 Del. Laws, c. 190, § 5; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 71 Del. Laws, c. 250, § 1; 71 Del. Laws, c. 319, § 1; 75 Del. Laws, c. 240, § 1.;

(a) Every person applying to register a vehicle at a registered gross vehicle weight in excess of 26,000 pounds shall provide to the Department with the application documentation of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating for such vehicle.

(b) Any of the following items shall constitute acceptable documentation of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating in accordance with this section:

(1) A valid manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating plate, sticker or plaque permanently affixed to the vehicle; or

(2) New vehicle delivery documents which contain the vehicle identification number (VIN), and the gross vehicle weight rating; or

(3) A written statement from the manufacturer setting forth the vehicle identification number (VIN), the weight ratings of the major component parts of the vehicle, including axle assemblies, suspension system, frame and tires, and the overall gross vehicle weight rating. The manufacturer's statement must be based on the design weight rating of the component parts, including tires, and upon the professional judgment of the manufacturer, in the exercise of due care, that the components and their installation are in accordance with accepted industry practice and in compliance with the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard found in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(4) In the case that a vehicle is missing a valid manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating plate, sticker, or plaque, or cannot obtain a manufacture's statement, DMV shall assign a GVWR for that vehicle based on the federal bridge formula, or acceptable alternative.

(c) As used in this chapter, "manufacturer" shall include any maker of new, incomplete vehicles and such maker's authorized sales and service representatives; any maker or final assembler of vehicle bodies, components or specialized equipment; and any installer of vehicle bodies, major components or specialized equipment which alters the vehicle's gross vehicle weight rating, or which substantially changes its use, and which conforms to the requirements of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act [repealed; see now 49 U.S.C. §§ 30101, et seq.] and of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard found in Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(d) Any vehicle which has a gross weight in excess of 26,000 pounds, except as provided in §§ 2152 and 4502(c)(2) of this title, shall not be registered at a weight in excess of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight for such vehicle or the Federal Bridge Formula in the absence of a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating. For those vehicles registered pursuant to § 2152 of this title, the actual gross weight of the vehicle, or each vehicle in combination, shall not exceed the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating. For those vehicles registered for extra weight capacity pursuant to the exception of § 4502(c)(2) of this title, the following shall apply:

(1) Vehicles registering for such extra weight capacity shall pay a fee of $100 per vehicle at the time of registration;

(2) No vehicle with a manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating of less than 65,000 shall be registered at a weight in excess of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating for such vehicle;

(3) No vehicle being registered for the first time shall be registered at a weight in excess of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating for such vehicle;

(4) No vehicle with a model year 20 or more years prior to the date of registration shall be registered at a weight in excess of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating for such vehicle; and

(5) Commencing June 15, 2022, no vehicle shall be registered at a weight in excess of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating for such vehicle.

(e) If registered pursuant to § 2152 of this title, any vehicle which has a gross weight rating in excess of 26,000 pounds shall not be operated within this State unless such vehicle is properly registered pursuant to this section and either:

(1) Has permanently affixed to it an unaltered and legible plate, sticker or plaque which states the gross vehicle weight rating; or

(2) Has within the vehicle the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating documentation required by subsection (b) of this section.

(f) Any vehicle altered so as to change its gross vehicle weight rating or substantially change its use shall not be registered or operated within this State unless the vehicle's new gross weight rating is documented in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.

(g) If the gross vehicle weight rating for a vehicle registered pursuant to this section is documented in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) or (3) of this section, the Division of Motor Vehicles shall maintain such documentation of the manufacturer's gross vehicle weight rating as part of such vehicle's title file.

67 Del. Laws, c. 400, § 1; 68 Del. Laws, c. 366, § 2; 69 Del. Laws, c. 3, § 1; 69 Del. Laws, c. 4, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 339, §§ 1-3; 71 Del. Laws, c. 128, §§ 1, 2; 75 Del. Laws, c. 190, §§ 1, 2; 77 Del. Laws, c. 189, § 1; 77 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 1; 77 Del. Laws, c. 316, § 1.;

The Department shall file each application received and, when satisfied as to the genuineness and regularity thereof and that the applicant is entitled thereto, shall register the vehicle therein described and the owner thereof in suitable books or in data processing computers under:

(1) A distinctive registration number assigned to the vehicle hereinafter referred to as the registration number, which may consist of a numerical figure or figures or of a letter or letters with a numerical figure or figures;

(2) The name of the owner;

(3) The vehicle identification number and, in the discretion of the Division, in any other method it determines.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 9; Code 1935, § 5547; 43 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 4; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2106; 58 Del. Laws, c. 59.;

(a) The Department upon registering a vehicle shall issue a registration card and deliver it to the owner.

(b) The registration card shall contain the date issued, the name and address of the owner, the registration number assigned to the vehicle, such description of the vehicle as may be determined by the Secretary, the period for which the vehicle is registered, a form for endorsement of notice to the Department upon transfer of the vehicle and a space in which the signature of the owner shall be placed to validate the card.

(c) This section shall be exempt from the provisions of § 2116 of this title.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 10; Code 1935, § 5548; 43 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 5; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2107; 57 Del. Laws, c. 670, § 8A; 58 Del. Laws, c. 239, § 52; 65 Del. Laws, c. 113, §§ 1, 2.;

The registration card issued for a vehicle required to be registered under this title shall at all times, while the vehicle is being operated upon a highway within this State, be in the possession of the operator thereof or carried in the vehicle and subject to inspection by any peace officer. However, an operator shall be allowed 24 hours to produce the registration card before a conviction can be obtained under this provision, such registration having been legally issued at a time prior to such operator's arrest.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 11; Code 1935, § 5549; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2108; 62 Del. Laws, c. 190, § 6; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) Any vehicle described in § 2151 of this title may be registered for 24 months, 12 months or 6 months and the effective date of the registration shall be the date the vehicle is titled. Any used vehicle not more than 5 model years old may be registered from 6 to 48 months based on a model year and mileage formula established by the Division of Motor Vehicles. The Division of Motor Vehicles may require vehicles to be registered for less than 24 months as may be necessary to ensure a balanced monthly distribution of vehicle inspections and registrations; all fees shall be prorated. The registration of a vehicle shall expire at midnight on the last day of the period for which it is registered, and the vehicle shall not thereafter be operated upon the highways of this State until it has been reregistered according to law. This section shall not apply to the vehicles registered under the International Registration Plan or to vehicles registered under temporary or limited permits or certificates as otherwise provided by this title.

(b) The owner of any semitrailer or trailer who wishes to match that vehicle's license plate expiration with the towing vehicle's license plate expiration may register such semitrailer or trailer for a period of from 1 to 12 months. In addition to the registration fee, which shall be prorated for the number of months registered, there shall be a service fee of $3.00. This subsection shall not apply to those vehicles which are under a fleet account as specified in § 2143(c) of this title.

(c) Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b) of this section, any newly-manufactured current model year motor vehicle or trailer with a gross registered weight of 10,000 pounds or less not previously registered or titled in any state or country may be initially registered by the owner for 5 years or less. Newly-manufactured previous model year motor vehicles or trailers having the above criteria may initially be registered for 4 years or less by a prorated formula established by the Division of Motor Vehicles. The effective date of registration shall be the date the vehicle is titled. The registration fee shall be the number of years selected multiplied by the annual registration fee. Thereafter, the registration shall be renewed pursuant to § 2110 of this title.

(d) In calculating the prorated fees or combined annual fees payable pursuant to this section, the fees shall be calculated using the rates in effect or scheduled to be in effect during the period of the prorated or extended registration.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 14; Code 1935, § 5552; 45 Del. Laws, c. 287, § 1; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2109; 57 Del. Laws, c. 271, § 1; 58 Del. Laws, c. 365, §§ 1, 2; 60 Del. Laws, c. 382, §§ 1, 2; 65 Del. Laws, c. 330, § 1; 66 Del. Laws, c. 91, § 1; 67 Del. Laws, c. 411, §§ 1, 2; 68 Del. Laws, c. 123, § 1; 68 Del. Laws, c. 156, § 56(e); 70 Del. Laws, c. 88, § 1; 72 Del. Laws, c. 18, §§ 1, 2.;

(a) Prior to the expiration of the period for which a vehicle is registered pursuant to § 2109 of this title, the registration may be renewed to extend from the date of expiration for an additional period of 6 months or 1 year or 2 years, and the effective date of the renewed registration shall be based on the calendar day the vehicle was titled. Vehicles no more than 5 model years old may be renewed for up to 48 months based on a prorated model year formula established by the Division of Motor Vehicles.

Any time prior to the expiration of the period for which a vehicle is registered with a commercial, trailer or farm truck license plate, the registration thereof may be renewed to extend from the date of expiration for an additional period of 3 months, 6 months, 1 year or 2 years.

(b) Upon renewing the registration of any vehicle or upon reregistering any vehicle, the Department shall furnish a new registration plate or plates showing the new registration period or the expiration date thereof and shall issue a new registration card or appropriately endorse the new registration period on the original card.

(c) A renewal registration of a vehicle for an additional period to take effect at the expiration of the registration thereof may be canceled on application to the Secretary at any time before the renewal registration is to take effect, and thereupon the Secretary shall refund to the owner the registration fee so paid for such renewal registration upon the receipt for cancellation by the Secretary for any such renewal registration card or registration plates, or both, issued pursuant to such renewal and otherwise cancel any endorsement of such renewal entered on the original card.

(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a), (b) and (c) of this section, the registration of any trailer with a gross registered weight of 4,000 pounds or less and for which the annual safety inspection is waived may be renewed for 3 years, at the option of the owner. If this option is selected, the registration fee shall be 3 times the annual registration fee.

(e) In calculating the prorated fees or combined annual fees payable pursuant to this section, the fees shall be calculated using the rates in effect or scheduled to be in effect during the period of the prorated or extended registration.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 14; Code 1935, § 5552; 45 Del. Laws, c. 287, § 1; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2110; 57 Del. Laws, c. 271, § 2; 57 Del. Laws, c. 670, § 8A; 58 Del. Laws, c. 365, § 3; 66 Del. Laws, c. 91, § 2; 67 Del. Laws, c. 411, §§ 3, 4; 68 Del. Laws, c. 123, § 2; 68 Del. Laws, c. 156, § 56(f); 70 Del. Laws, c. 88, § 1; 72 Del. Laws, c. 18, § 3.;

In the event that any registration card issued under this title is lost, mutilated or becomes illegible, the person who is entitled thereto shall make immediate application for and obtain a duplicate or substitute therefor upon furnishing information of such fact satisfactory to the Department and upon payment of the required fees.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 19; Code 1935, § 5557; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2111.;

(a) A nonresident owner, except as otherwise provided in this section, owning any foreign vehicle which has been duly registered for the current registration year in the state, country or other place of which the owner is a resident and which at all times, when operated in this State, has displayed upon it the number plate or plates issued for any such vehicle in the place of residence of such owner may operate or permit the operation of such vehicle within this State without registering such vehicle or paying any fees to this State.

(b) Motor vehicles owned and controlled by nonresidents of this State, who are residents or citizens of foreign nations, and the drivers and operators thereof shall be accorded the free use of the highways of this State without restriction by way of license or registration and without the imposition of any tax or fee. This subsection shall not apply to vehicles owned or controlled by residents or citizens of foreign nations and drivers and operators thereof when such foreign nations do not extend similar privileges to the residents of the United States.

(c) A nonresident owner, operator or custodian of any motor vehicle, vehicle or trailer using such vehicle for transportation of persons or property for compensation within this State or for the transportation of merchandise within this State shall register each such vehicle and pay the same fees therefor as is required with reference to like vehicles owned by residents of this State.

(d) The requirements of subsection (c) of this section may be waived by the Department of Transportation for vehicles registered in those jurisdictions which reciprocate with vehicles registered in this State.

(e) The Secretary shall enforce this title and shall have the power to suspend the operating privilege of all, a class or a part of any class of motor vehicles or trailers or semitrailers registered in another jurisdiction when, in the Secretary's judgment, any such jurisdiction prohibits the free operation therein of a class or part of any class of motor vehicles or trailers or semitrailers belonging to residents of this State and which have been properly registered in accordance with the laws of this State. The Secretary shall also have power to suspend for violation of any of the provisions of this title, or on other reasonable grounds, the operating privilege of any motor vehicle or trailer or semitrailer belonging to a nonresident. In suspending any such operating privilege, the Secretary shall notify the official or body performing the registration duty in the jurisdiction in which the nonresident resides of such action. If any such motor vehicle or trailer or semitrailer whose operating privilege has been suspended shall thereafter be driven in this State, such driving shall constitute a violation of § 2115(1) of this title, and the driver of any such vehicle shall be subject to the penalty prescribed in § 2116. The Secretary shall also have the power to impound the vehicle in violation until the fees imposed under § 402 of this title have been paid to the Department. Any impoundment fees or towing fees incurred as a result of a violation of this section shall be at the registered owner's expense.

(f)(1) A motor vehicle lessor may include separately stated mandatory charges in a rental agreement, including, but not limited to, vehicle licensing recovery fees, airport access fees, airport concession fees and all applicable taxes.

(2) If a motor vehicle lessor includes a vehicle licensing recovery fee as a separately stated charge in a rental transaction, the amount of the fee shall represent the motor vehicle lessor's good-faith estimate of the motor vehicle lessor's average cost per vehicle of the motor vehicle lessor's total Delaware annual titling and registration costs incurred under this chapter.

(3) If the total amount of vehicle licensing recovery fees collected by the motor vehicle lessor under this section in any calendar year exceeds the motor vehicle lessor's actual costs to license, title, register, and plate rental vehicles for that calendar year, the motor vehicle lessor shall do the following:

a. Retain the excess amount; and

b. Adjust the estimated average per vehicle titling and registration charges for the following year by a corresponding amount.

(4) As used in this subsection:

a. "Motor vehicle" means that term as defined in § 101 of this title.

b. "Motor vehicle lessor" means a person whose primary business is renting motor vehicles to consumers under rental agreements for periods of 90 days or less.

c. "Vehicle licensing recovery fee" means a charge that may be included in a vehicle rental transaction originating in this State to recover costs incurred by a motor vehicle lessor to license, title, register, and plate rental vehicles.

34 Del. Laws, c. 15; 36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 18; Code 1935, § 5556; 42 Del. Laws, c. 168, § 4; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2112; 60 Del. Laws, c. 597, § 1; 64 Del. Laws, c. 339, § 3; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 74 Del. Laws, c. 110, § 40; 79 Del. Laws, c. 167, § 1.;

Farmers may register vehicles for farm use in the following manner:

(1) Farm truck, semitrailer, and trailer license plates ("FT" tags):

a. Farmers may qualify for the reduced registration fee for "FT" license tags if they derive at least $1,000 of their annual income from the operation of their farm and they own or rent at least 10 acres which is actively used in the farming operation from which they derive that income.

b. Any vehicle, semitrailer or trailer upon which an "FT" license tag is affixed must be used exclusively in the operation of a farm or for personal use other than nonfarming commercial use.

c. Farmers shall not hire or rent the farm truck, semitrailer, or trailer, or permit a farm truck, semitrailer, or trailer to be used for hauling merchandise, farm products, or other items whatsoever under rent, hire, or for pay.

d. [Repealed.]

(2) Farm vehicle license plates ("FV" tags) exempt from inspection:

a. Except as hereinafter provided, after October 7, 2014, no person shall operate any farm vehicle within the State unless such vehicle has been registered in accordance with this chapter. Such registration shall not permit the vehicle to be operated on any highway except as hereinafter specifically provided. This registration is for identification only and does not constitute being "registered" in this State, for purposes of § 2118 of this title, or any other requirement of this chapter.

b. Farmers may qualify for an inspection waiver for a farm motor vehicle, farm vehicle, or farm trailer if they derive at least $1,000 of their annual income from the operation of their farm and they own or rent at least 10 acres which are actively used in the farming operation from which they derive that income.

c. Any vehicle or trailer upon which a "FV" tag is affixed must be used exclusively in the operation of a farm, or for personal use other than nonfarming commercial use.

d. No farm motor vehicle, farm vehicle, or farm trailer may be used for hire or for any use except in the exclusive operation of a farm owned or rented by the owner of such vehicle or trailer, or in aid of and assistance to another farmer for harvest purposes.

e. Farmers shall not hire or rent any farm motor vehicle, farm vehicle, or farm trailer, or permit a farm motor vehicle, farm vehicle, or farm trailer to be used for hauling merchandise, farm products, or other items whatsoever under rent, hire, or for pay.

f. Farmers shall not use any vehicle or trailer upon which an "FV" tag is affixed for any use except in the operation of a farm owned or rented by the titled owner of such vehicle or trailer or in aid of and assistance to another farmer for harvest purposes, or for personal use other than nonfarming commercial use.

g. No farm motor vehicle, farm vehicle, or farm trailer to which an "FV" tag is affixed may be operated or towed upon the public highways or roads unless:

1. Those highways and roads are within a 20-mile radius of a farm owned or managed by the owner of the vehicle or trailer;

2. The vehicle or trailer is operated or towed by a person who is properly licensed by the Division of Motor Vehicles;

3. The vehicle or trailer is properly equipped with a stop light, turn signals and brakes which are in a safe operating condition.

Code 1935, § 5640B; 47 Del. Laws, c. 255, § 2; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2113; 60 Del. Laws, c. 500, §§ 1, 2; 63 Del. Laws, c. 289, § 1; 68 Del. Laws, c. 300, § 1; 69 Del. Laws, c. 21, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 2, § 1; 73 Del. Laws, c. 173, § 1; 74 Del. Laws, c. 383, § 1; 77 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 2; 79 Del. Laws, c. 104, § 1; 79 Del. Laws, c. 210, § 1.;

(a) Definition. — "Low-speed vehicle" means a 4-wheeled motor vehicle, other than a truck, whose speed attainable in 1 mile is more than 20 miles per hour but no more than 25 miles per hour on a paved level surface. The low-speed vehicle shall be limited to a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than 2,500 pounds.

(b) Operation of low-speed vehicles. — Low-speed vehicles shall only be operated on roads where the posted speed limit is not more than 35 miles per hour. A low-speed vehicle may cross a highway at an intersection where the highway has a posted speed limit of more than 35 miles per hour. Low-speed vehicles shall not be operated on dual highways, as defined in § 135 of Title 17 and located in the unincorporated portions of the State, except as needed to cross them. Low-speed vehicles may be operated on such dual highways within incorporated cities and towns if the respective municipal government enacts an ordinance permitting such movement, subject to the other limitations of this section. All low-speed vehicles shall meet the requirements of 49 C.F.R. § 571.500.

(c) Driver's license requirement. — All persons operating a low-speed vehicle on the highways of this State shall hold a valid driver's license.

(d) Safety inspections. — Low-speed vehicles shall be exempt from Delaware's safety inspection. Division of Motor Vehicles personnel will verify the vehicle identification number on those vehicles titled in another jurisdiction, which are being titled in Delaware for the first time. A fee of $15 shall be charged for Division of Motor Vehicles technicians to perform offsite vehicle identification number verification. Upon registration and renewal of a low-speed vehicle's registration, the owner shall certify, under penalty of perjury, that all lights, brakes, tires, seat belts and other vehicle equipment are in good working condition.

(e) Insurance. — Low-speed vehicles shall be required to maintain insurance as required by § 2118 of this title. Delaware automobile insurance companies may provide automobile insurance on these vehicles at their option. These automobile insurance companies shall not be mandated to provide insurance on low-speed vehicles by regulation or law.

(f) Title and registration.

(1) Low-speed vehicles shall be titled as specified in Chapters 23 and 25 of this title. The manufacturer's certificate of origin and Delaware title shall clearly identify the vehicle as a low-speed vehicle. The Division shall not issue vehicle identification numbers to homemade low-speed vehicles or retrofitted golf carts unless these vehicles meet all of the requirements of the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, 49 C.F.R. § 571.500. Normal title and document fees shall be charged to register a low-speed vehicle in Delaware.

(2) Registration fees shall be the same as a normal passenger vehicle as defined in § 2151(2) of this title. Registration periods shall comply with §§ 2109 and 2110 of this title. A regular license plate shall be displayed on the rear of the vehicle.

(g) Dealer requirements. — Any person engaged in the retail sale of low-speed vehicles must be licensed by the Division of Motor Vehicles as a licensed motor vehicle dealer, must comply with all of the requirements of Chapter 63 of this title, and must meet all Division of Motor Vehicles rules and regulations.

(h) Whoever violates this section shall for the first offense be fined not less than $50 nor more than $100. For each subsequent like offense, the person shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $200, or imprisoned not less than 10 days nor more than 30 days or both.

76 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 1.;

Whenever the owner of any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, which has been stolen or embezzled, files an affidavit of the fact thereof with the Department, the Department shall forthwith suspend the registration of such vehicle and shall not transfer the title of or reregister the vehicle until it has been notified that the owner has recovered such vehicle. The notice shall be effective for the current registration period, but, if during that time the vehicle is not recovered, a new affidavit to like effect may be filed with the Department, and the notice shall be effective for a further period of 12 months. Thereafter like notices may be given effective from year to year. Every owner who has filed an affidavit of theft or embezzlement shall immediately notify the Department of the recovery of such vehicle, and failure so to do within 30 days after such recovery shall be punished as provided in § 2116 of this title.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 20; Code 1935, § 5558; 43 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 11; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2114.;

No person shall:

(1) Operate or, being the owner of any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, knowingly permit the operation upon a highway of any motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer which is not registered or which does not have attached thereto and displayed thereon the number plate or plates assigned thereto by the Department and unexpired registration plate or plates, subject to the exemptions allowed in this title, or under temporary or limited permits as otherwise provided by this title;

(2) Display or cause or permit to be displayed or have in possession any registration card, number plate or registration plate, knowing the same to be fictitious or to have been canceled, revoked, suspended or altered;

(3) Lend to, or knowingly permit the use by, one not entitled thereto any registration card, number plate or registration plate issued to the person so lending or permitting the use thereof;

(4) Fail or refuse to surrender to the Department upon demand any registration card, number plate or registration plate which has been suspended, canceled or revoked as provided in this title;

(5) Use a false or fictitious name or address in any application for the registration or inspection of any vehicle, or for any renewal or duplicate thereof, or for any certificate or transfer of title, or knowingly make a false statement, knowingly conceal a material fact or otherwise commit a fraud in any such application;

(6) Drive or move or, being the owner, cause or knowingly permit to be driven or moved, on any highway any vehicle or combination of vehicles which is in such unsafe condition as to endanger any person or which is equipped in any manner in violation of this title, but the provisions of this title with respect to equipment on vehicles shall not apply to implements of husbandry, road machinery, road rollers or farm tractors except as herein made applicable;

(7) Own or operate any qualified motor vehicle as defined under the International Registration Plan, as authorized in Chapter 4 of this title, not properly displaying an apportioned plate with required registration credentials, or operate a qualified motor vehicle without having in that person's possession a trip permit registration as authorized in § 2103(6) of this title. Any person who violates this subsection shall, for the first offense, be fined not less than $115 nor more than $345, and for each subsequent offense not less than $345 nor more than $575. In addition, such person shall also be fined in an amount which is equal to the cost of registering the vehicle at its gross weight at the time of the offense or at the maximum legal limit, whichever is less, which fine shall be suspended if, within 5 days of the offense, the court is presented with a valid registration card for the gross weight at the time of the offense or the maximum legal limit for such vehicle.

(8) Operate or tow any farm vehicle upon the highways or roads of this State unless properly licensed by the Department, or being the owner of any farm vehicle knowingly permit the operation or towing of any farm vehicle upon the highways or roads of this State unless operated or towed by a person who is properly licensed by the Department, whether or not the farm vehicle is registered, or is exempt from inspection and registration pursuant to § 2113 of this title;

(9) Do any act forbidden or fail to perform any act required under this chapter.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 25; 40 Del. Laws, c. 38, § 10; Code 1935, § 5563; 43 Del. Laws, c. 244, § 14; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2115; 49 Del. Laws, c. 220, § 21; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 202, § 2; 73 Del. Laws, c. 173, § 2.;

(a) Whoever violates this chapter shall, for the first offense, be fined not less than $10 nor more than $100 or be imprisoned not less than 30 days nor more than 90 days or both. For each subsequent like offense, the person shall be fined not less than $50 nor more than $200 or imprisoned not less than 90 days nor more than 6 months or both, in addition to which any person, being the operator or owner of any vehicle which requires a registration fee which is calculated upon the gross weight of the vehicle and any load thereon shall be fined at a rate double that which is set forth in this subsection and be imprisoned as provided herein or both. In addition, such person shall also be fined in an amount which is equal to the cost of registering the vehicle at its gross weight at the time of the offense or at the maximum legal limit, whichever is less; which fine shall be suspended, if within 5 days of the offense the court is presented with a valid registration card for the gross weight at the time of the offense for the maximum legal limit for such vehicle.

(b)(1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, whoever violates § 2115(1)-(5) of this title shall, for the first offense, be fined not less than $50 nor more than $200, be imprisoned not less than 30 days nor more than 90 days, or be penalized by both fine and imprisonment. For each subsequent like offense, such person shall be fined not less than $100 nor more than $300, be imprisoned not less than 90 days nor more than 6 months, or be penalized by both fine and imprisonment.

(2) Any owner or operator of a vehicle which requires a registration fee which is calculated upon the gross weight of the vehicle, and any load thereon, and who violates § 2115(1)-(5) of this title, shall be fined at a rate double that which is set forth in this subsection, or be imprisoned as provided herein, or be both fined and imprisoned. In addition, such person shall also be fined an amount which is equal to the costs of registering the vehicle either at its gross weight at the time of the offense, or at the maximum legal limit, whichever is less. Such fine shall be suspended if, within 5 days of the offense, the court is presented with a valid registration card for the actual gross weight of the vehicle at the time of the offense.

(c) This section shall not apply to violations for which a specific punishment is set forth elsewhere in this chapter.

(d) For any violation of the registration provisions of § 2102 or § 2115 of this title and in absence of any traffic offenses relating to driver impairment, the violator's copy of the traffic summons shall act as that violator's authority to drive the vehicle involved by the most direct route from the place of arrest to either the violator's residence or the violator's current place of abode.

36 Del. Laws, c. 10, § 32; 37 Del. Laws, c. 10, §§ 10, 11; Code 1935, § 5570; 21 Del. C. 1953, § 2116; 59 Del. Laws, c. 332, §§ 1, 2; 64 Del. Laws, c. 207, § 2; 69 Del. Laws, c. 307, §§ 1, 3, 4.;

Upon the surrender to the Department of the number plates or plate issued for a vehicle registered under this title, and the furnishing of proof satisfactory to the Secretary and the State Treasurer that (1) the owner of the vehicle entered the armed forces of the United States after such vehicle was registered or (2) that the owner of such vehicle is 65 years of age or older and that the owner voluntarily surrendered such owner's operator's license following the attainment of such age and the registration or reregistration of such vehicle, and that the registration of such vehicle is in full effect, there shall be refunded to such owner, from the General Fund of this State, from funds not otherwise appropriated, a sum equal to as many twelfths of the fee paid for the registration of the vehicle as there are full calendar months in the registration year following the date of the receipt of the number plates or plate, less the sum of $1.00.

21 Del. C. 1953, § 2117; 57 Del. Laws, c. 632; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) No owner of a motor vehicle required to be registered in this State, other than a self-insurer pursuant to § 2904 of this title, shall operate or authorize any other person to operate such vehicle unless the owner has insurance on such motor vehicle providing the following minimum insurance coverage:

(1) Indemnity from legal liability for bodily injury, death or property damage arising out of ownership, maintenance or use of the vehicle to the limit, exclusive of interest and costs, of at least the limits prescribed by the Financial Responsibility Law of this State.

(2)a. Compensation to injured persons for reasonable and necessary expenses incurred within 2 years from the date of the accident for:

1. Medical, hospital, dental, surgical, medicine, x-ray, ambulance, prosthetic services, professional nursing and funeral services. Compensation for funeral services, including all customary charges and the cost of a burial plot for 1 person, shall not exceed the sum of $5,000. Compensation may include expenses for any nonmedical remedial care and treatment rendered in accordance with a recognized religious method of healing.

2. Net amount of lost earnings. Lost earnings shall include net lost earnings of a self-employed person.

3. Where a qualified medical practitioner shall, within 2 years from the date of an accident, verify in writing that surgical or dental procedures will be necessary and are then medically ascertainable but impractical or impossible to perform during that 2-year period, the cost of such dental or surgical procedures, including expenses for related medical treatment, and the net amount of lost earnings lost in connection with such dental or surgical procedures shall be payable. Such lost earnings shall be limited to the period of time that is reasonably necessary to recover from such surgical or dental procedures but not to exceed 90 days. The payment of these costs shall be either at the time they are ascertained or at the time they are actually incurred, at the insurer's option.

4. Extra expenses for personal services which would have been performed by the injured person had they not been injured.

5. "Injured person" for the purposes of this section shall include the personal representative of an estate; provided, however, that if a death occurs, the "net amount of lost earnings" shall include only that sum attributable to the period prior to the death of the person so injured.

b. The minimum insurance coverage which will satisfy the requirements of subparagraph a. of this paragraph is a minimum limit for the total of all payments which must be made pursuant to that subparagraph of $15,000 for any 1 person and $30,000 for all persons injured in any 1 accident.

c. The coverage required by this paragraph shall be applicable to each person occupying such motor vehicle and to any other person injured in an accident involving such motor vehicle, other than an occupant of another motor vehicle.

d. The coverage required by this paragraph shall also be applicable to the named insureds and members of their households for accidents which occur through being injured by an accident with any motor vehicle other than a Delaware insured motor vehicle while a pedestrian or while occupying any registered motor vehicle other than a Delaware registered insured motor vehicle, in any state of the United States, its territories or possessions or Canada.

e. The coverage required in this paragraph shall apply to pedestrians only if they are injured by an accident with any motor vehicle within the State except as to named insureds or members of their households to the extent they must be covered pursuant to paragraph (a)(2)d. of this section.

f. The owner of a vehicle may elect to have the coverage described in this paragraph written subject to certain deductibles, waiting periods, sublimits, percentage reductions, excess provisions and similar reductions offered by insurers in accordance with filings made by such insurers with the Department of Insurance; applicable to expenses incurred as a result of injury to the owner of a vehicle or members of the owner's household; provided that the owner of a motorcycle may elect to exclude from such coverage expenses incurred as a result of injury to any person riding such vehicle while not on a highway and in any case of injury when no other vehicle was involved by actual collision or contact. This election must be made in writing and signed by the owner of the vehicle; insurers issuing such policies may not require such reductions. For all policies having a deductible pursuant to this paragraph the insured shall receive in writing as a separate document a full explanation of all deductible options available, and the insured shall sign such written explanation acknowledging receipt of a copy of same. In addition the insured shall sign a separate statement acknowledging the specific deductible the insured is selecting and the related cost for the policies with such deductible. An insured person may not plead and introduce into evidence in an action for damages against a tortfeasor the amount of the deductible; however, insurers shall recover any deductible for their insureds or their household members pursuant to subsection (g) of this section. Any notices or documents required under this section may be delivered in compliance with the provisions of § 107 of Title 18.

g. The coverage required by this paragraph shall be considered excess over any similar insurance for passengers, other than Delaware residents, when the accident occurs outside the State.

h. Insurers shall notify injured persons covered under this section that the coverage is for 2 years from the date of the accident, and that it is only extended for compensation related to surgical or dental procedures that are related to the accident and that were impossible or impractical to perform within the 2-year period. Such surgical or dental procedures must be verified in writing, within 2 years of the accident, by a qualified medical practitioner.

i.1. Expenses under paragraph (a)(2)a. of this section shall be submitted to the insurer as promptly as practical, in no event more than 2 years after they are received by the insured.

2. Payments of expenses under paragraph (a)(2)a. of this section shall be made as soon as practical after they are received during the period of 2 years from the accident. Expenses which are incurred within the 2 years but which have been impractical to present to an insurer within the 2 years shall be paid if presented within 90 days after the end of the 2-year period.

(3) Compensation for damage to property arising as a result of an accident involving the motor vehicle, other than damage to a motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, self-propelled mobile equipment and any property in or upon any of the aforementioned, with the minimum limits of $10,000 for any 1 accident.

(4) Compensation for damage to the insured motor vehicle, including loss of use of the motor vehicle, not to exceed the actual cash value of the vehicle at the time of the loss and $10 per day, with a maximum payment of $300, for loss of use of such vehicle.

The owner of the motor vehicle may elect to exclude, in whole or in part, the coverage described in this paragraph by the use of certain deductibles and exclusions in accordance with filings made by the insurer with the Department of Insurance.

(b) No owner of a motor vehicle being operated in this State shall operate in this State, or authorize any other person to operate such vehicle in this State, unless the owner has insurance on such motor vehicle equal to the minimum insurance required by the state or jurisdiction where said vehicle is registered. If the state or jurisdiction of registration requires no minimum insurance coverage, then such owner must have insurance on such motor vehicle equal to the minimum insurance coverage required for motor vehicles registered in this State. However, an owner shall not be convicted under this subsection if, prior to conviction, the owner shall produce to the court in which the offense is to be tried the insurance identification card or in lieu thereof other sufficient proof of insurance showing such insurance to be in full force and effect at all pertinent times when the motor vehicle was being operated in this State. The Justice of the Peace Court may permit an operator charged under this subsection to provide proof of insurance to the Court by mail or facsimile transmission in lieu of a personal appearance. Proof of insurance shall be as prescribed by the Court and shall be sent to the Court directly from the operator's insurer or the insurer's agent or broker. It shall be the responsibility of the operator to ensure that proof of insurance is received and accepted by the Court. When proof of insurance is sent by mail or fax, the Court may also accept a guilty plea by mail or fax for any accompanying charge for which a voluntary assessment is permitted under § 709(e) of this title. A guilty plea so accepted shall have the same force and effect as if the operator had made the plea in open court. The Justice of the Peace Court shall enact court rules to implement the handling of such cases by mail or facsimile transmission. Where proof of insurance is provided by facsimile, the operator's insurer or the insurer's agent or broker must confirm the information by mail and the Justice of the Peace Court must confirm by telephone that the facsimile was sent by the operator's insurer or the insurer's agent or broker.

(c) Only insurance policies validly issued by companies authorized to write in this State all the kinds of insurance embodied in the required coverages shall satisfy the requirements of this section.

(d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the issuance of policies providing coverage more extensive than the minimum coverages required by this section or to require the segregation of such minimum coverages from other coverages in the same policy.

(e) Policies purporting to satisfy the requirements of this section shall contain a provision which states that, notwithstanding any of the other terms and conditions of the policy, the coverage afforded shall be at least as extensive as the minimum coverage required by this section.

(f) The coverage described in paragraphs (a)(1)-(4) of this section may be subject to conditions and exclusions customary to the field of liability, casualty and property insurance and not inconsistent with the requirements of this section, except there shall be no exclusion to any person who sustains bodily injury or death to the extent that benefits therefore are in whole or in part either payable or required to be provided under any workers' compensation law.

(g) Insurers providing benefits described in paragraphs (a)(1)-(4) of this section shall be subrogated to the rights, including claims under any workers' compensation law, of the person for whom benefits are provided, to the extent of the benefits so provided.

(1) Such subrogated rights shall be limited to the maximum amounts of the tortfeasor's liability insurance coverage available for the injured party, after the injured party's claim has been settled or otherwise resolved, except that the insurer providing benefits shall be indemnified by any workers' compensation insurer obligated to make such payments to the injured party.

(2) Any settlement made with an injured party by a liability insurer shall not be challenged or disputed by any insurer having subrogated rights.

(3) Disputes among insurers as to liability or amounts paid pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1)-(4) of this section shall be arbitrated by the Wilmington Auto Accident Reparation Arbitration Committee or its successors. Any disputes arising between an insurer or insurers and a self-insurer or self-insurers shall be submitted to arbitration which shall be conducted by the Commissioner in the same manner as the arbitration of claims provided for in subsection (j) of this section.

(4) No insurer or self-insurer shall join or be joined in an action by an injured party against a tortfeasor for the recovery of damages by the injured party and/or the recovery of benefits paid by the insurer or self-insurer.

(5) Nothing contained herein shall prohibit a liability insurer from paying the subrogated claim of another insurer prior to the settlement or resolution of the injured party's claim. However, should the amount of such settlement or resolution, in addition to the amount of any subrogated claim, exceed the maximum amount for the tortfeasor's liability insurance coverage available for the injured party, then any insurer who has been paid its subrogated claim shall reimburse the tortfeasor's liability insurer that portion of the claim exceeding the maximum amount of the tortfeasor's liability insurance coverage available for the injured party.

(6) Unless specifically excepted by this subsection, this subsection shall also apply to self-insurers.

(h) Any person eligible for benefits described in paragraph (a)(2) or (3) of this section, other than an insurer in an action brought pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, is precluded from pleading or introducing into evidence in an action for damages against a tortfeasor those damages for which compensation is available under paragraph (a)(2) or (3) of this section without regard to any elective reductions in such coverage and whether or not such benefits are actually recoverable.

(i) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require an insurer to insure any particular risk. Nothing herein shall limit the insurer's obligation pursuant to the Delaware Automobile Plan.

(j) Every insurance policy issued under this section shall require the insurer to submit to arbitration, in the manner set forth hereinafter, any claims for losses or damages within the coverages required under paragraph (a)(2) of this section and for damages to a motor vehicle, including the insured motor vehicle, including loss of use of such vehicle, upon request of the party claiming to have suffered a loss or damages within the above-described coverages of paragraph (a)(2) of this section or to such a motor vehicle. Such request shall be in writing and mailed to the Insurance Commissioner.

(1) All arbitration shall be administered by the Insurance Commissioner or the Insurance Commissioner's nominee.

(2) The Insurance Commissioner or the Insurance Commissioner's nominee shall establish a panel of arbitrators consisting of attorneys authorized to practice law in the State and insurance adjusters licensed to act as such in the State.

(3) The Insurance Commissioner, or the Insurance Commissioner's nominee, shall select 3 individuals from the panel of arbitrators, at least 1 of whom shall be an attorney authorized to practice law in the State, to hear each request for arbitration.

(4) The Insurance Commissioner, or the Insurance Commissioner's nominee, shall promulgate all rules and regulations necessary to implement this arbitration program.

(5) The right to require such arbitration shall be purely optional and neither party shall be held to have waived any of its rights by any act relating to arbitration and the losing party shall have a right to appeal de novo to the Superior Court if notice of such appeal is filed with that Court in the manner set forth by its rules within 30 days of the date of the decision being rendered.

(6) The Insurance Commissioner shall establish a schedule of costs of arbitration; provided, however, the arbitrator's fee shall not exceed $25 per arbitrator for any 1 arbitration.

(7) The cost of arbitration shall be payable to the State Department of Insurance, and shall be maintained in a special fund identified as the "Arbitration Fund" which shall be administered by the Insurance Commissioner. These funds under no circumstances shall revert to the General Fund. All costs of arbitration including administrative expenses of the Insurance Department and the arbitrator's fee shall be payable from this Fund.

(8) The applicant may be reimbursed the cost of filing arbitration as a part of the award rendered by the arbitration panel. If an insurer should pay an applicant damages in advance of a hearing, they shall include with those damages the cost to the applicant of filing the arbitration.

(9) This subsection shall also apply to self-insurers.

(k) Every insurance company authorized to transact the business of motor vehicle liability insurance in this State shall file with the Insurance Commissioner as a condition of its continued transaction of such business within this State a form approved by the Insurance Commissioner stating that its motor vehicle liability policies, on Delaware registered vehicles wherever issued, shall be deemed to provide the insurance required by this section. A nonadmitted insurer may file such a form.

(l) A motor vehicle registration shall not be issued or renewed for any vehicle not covered by a vehicle insurance policy meeting the requirements of this title. All insurers shall send to the Division of Motor Vehicles notice, in written or electronic form per the direction of the Division, of any cancellations or terminations of private passenger automobile insurance under § 3904(a)(1) of Title 18 for any private passenger automobile policies which are final and occur within the first 6 months after such policies are issued. The Insurance Commissioner may further change the timeframe for notification by regulation. All insurers shall send notice to the named insured when a motor vehicle insurance policy is canceled pursuant to the provisions of § 3905 of Title 18.

(m) A motor vehicle owner shall, upon request of the Division of Motor Vehicles, offer proof of insurance in full force and effect as a condition of registration or continued registration of a motor vehicle. The Division of Motor Vehicles, upon proof from its records or other sufficient evidence that the required insurance has not been provided or maintained or has terminated or otherwise lapsed at any time, shall immediately suspend the registration of the uninsured vehicle. The registration shall remain suspended until:

(1) The required insurance is obtained or replaced and the vehicle owner submits evidence of insurance on a form prescribed by the Division of Motor Vehicles and certified by the insurer or its agent; and

(2) An uninsured motorist penalty fee is paid to the Division of Motor Vehicles.

(n)(1) Except as provided in subsection (p) of this section, within 5 days of the notice of suspension from the Division of Motor Vehicles, the owner will surrender to the Division of Motor Vehicles the vehicle's certificate of registration and the registration plate. If the owner fails to comply within the aforementioned 5 days, the Division of Motor Vehicles shall suspend the owner's driver's license.

(2) The Division of Motor Vehicles will promulgate rules and/or regulations to cover those circumstances in which there is an allegation of lost or stolen tags.

(3) Each insurer shall report to the Division of Motor Vehicles, within 30 days on a form prescribed by the Division of Motor Vehicles, the name of any person or persons involved in an accident or filing a claim who is alleged to have been operating a Delaware registered motor vehicle without the insurance required under this chapter. At a minimum, the insurer shall provide the name, address and description of the vehicle alleged to be uninsured. Each insurer shall take reasonable care when reporting potential violations of this section, but in no case shall an insurer, provider or any of its employees or agents incur any liabilities for erroneous reports of a violation.

(4) In addition to any other penalty provided for in the Delaware Motor Vehicle Law, if the required insurance for a vehicle terminates or otherwise lapses during its registration year, the Division of Motor Vehicles shall assess the owner of the vehicle with a penalty of $100 for each vehicle without the required insurance for a period of up to 30 days. When a penalty fee is assessed, beginning on the thirty-first day of the penalty period, the penalty fee shall increase by a rate of $5.00 for each subsequent day until the insurance is replaced, tags are surrendered to the Division of Motor Vehicles, or the registration expires, whichever occurs first. The Division of Motor Vehicles shall also charge a registration reinstatement fee of $50. When the Division of Motor Vehicles assesses a vehicle owner with a penalty under this subsection, the Division shall not reinstate a registration suspended under this section until the penalty is paid, and the owner has also paid a registration reinstatement fee of $50.

(o) "Insurance identification card" shall mean a card issued by or on behalf of an insurance company or bonding company duly authorized to transact business in this State which states in such form as the Insurance Commissioner may prescribe or approve that such company has issued a vehicle insurance policy meeting the requirements of this title. If the insured and insurance company both consent, the insurance identification card may be produced in electronic format. Acceptable electronic formats include display of electronic images on a cellular phone or any other type of portable electronic device. The Insurance Commissioner shall require all insurance companies transacting business within this State to provide with each vehicle insurance policy an insurance identification card describing the vehicle covered. The insurance identification card shall be valid for a period not to exceed 6 months. Notwithstanding this limitation, an insurance identification card may be issued for a period of 12 months if premium has been paid for the 12-month period. If an owner shall have filed a financial security deposit, or shall have qualified as a self-insurer, the term "insurance identification card" shall mean a card issued by the Office of the Insurance Commissioner which evidences that such deposit has been filed or that such owner has so qualified.

(p)(1) The insurance identification card issued for a vehicle required to be registered under this title shall at all times, when the vehicle is being operated upon a highway within this State, be in the possession of the operator thereof or carried in the vehicle and shall be produced upon the request of a police officer or any other party involved in an accident with the insured. If the operator of a motor vehicle is unable to produce an insurance identification card at the time of a traffic stop or an accident the operator shall be issued a summons to appear in court. If the operator is convicted under this subsection and has not provided proof of insurance in effect as of the date of conviction, the court shall, in addition to any other penalties imposed, notify the Division of Motor Vehicles of the lack of insurance. The Division of Motor Vehicles shall promptly suspend the vehicle's registration pursuant to the provisions of subsection (m) of this section.

a. Presentation of proof of insurance in electronic format shall not constitute consent for law enforcement or other state officials to access other contents of the cellular phone or other portable electronic device, and shall not expand or restrict authority to conduct a search or investigation.

b. Law-enforcement officers and other state officials shall not be liable for any damage to a cellular phone or portable electronic device resulting from its use to present satisfactory proof of motor vehicle liability insurance coverage.

c. A police officer may require the operator to electronically forward the proof of insurance to a specified location provided by the officer. The electronic insurance information would then be viewed in a setting which is safe for the officer to verify that all the information is valid and accurate.

(2) An operator shall not be convicted under this subsection if, prior to conviction, the operator shall produce to the court in which the offense is to be tried the insurance identification card or in lieu thereof other sufficient proof, including but not limited to an automobile, garage keeper's or other commercial or personal insurance policy, showing that there was insurance in full force and effect at all pertinent times covering or which would cover the said motor vehicle or the operation of the said motor vehicle by the operator charged under this subsection.

(3) Subject to paragraph (p)(2) of this section above, the Justice of the Peace Court may permit an operator charged under this subsection to provide proof of insurance to the Court by mail or facsimile transmission or other Court approved method in lieu of a personal appearance. Proof of insurance shall be as prescribed by the Court and shall be sent to the Court directly from the operator's insurer or the insurer's agent or broker. It shall be the responsibility of the operator to ensure that proof of insurance is received and accepted by the Court. When proof of insurance is accepted by the court by any means other than personal appearance, the Court may also accept a guilty plea in absentia for any accompanying charge for which a voluntary assessment is permitted under § 709(e) of this title. A guilty plea so accepted shall have the same force and effect as if the operator had made the plea in open court. The Justice of the Peace Court shall enact court rules to implement the handling of such cases by means other than personal appearance of the operator.

(4) Where the individual is charged with violating this section, and at the time of the alleged offense, the individual was operating a vehicle owned or leased by the individual's employer in the course and scope of the individual's employment, the individual shall not be convicted of violating this section unless the individual knew or should have known that the employer's vehicle failed to meet the requirement of this section.

(q)(1) The Division of Motor Vehicles shall annually select for verification on a random sample basis not less than 10% of vehicle registrations subject to the insurance required by this section. This verification will be made through the insurers as reflected in the Division's records.

(2) Any vehicle owner identified by the Division as a possible uninsured shall submit proof of insurance within 30 days of the Division's request for such proof, to the Division of Motor Vehicles on a form prescribed by the Division and certified by an insurer or agent.

(3) The failure of a vehicle owner to submit the required proof under this section within a 30-day period shall be prima facie evidence that the vehicle is uninsured and the owner shall be subject to the penalties as prescribed in subsections (l) and (m) of this section.

(4) With respect to any vehicle which has:

a. Had its registration suspended by the Division of Motor Vehicles pursuant to subsection (m) of this section,

b. Had transfer of custody of its license plate ordered by the Justice of the Peace Court pursuant to subsection (p) of this section, or

c. Failed to produce proof of insurance in a timely fashion pursuant to this subsection (q) of this section,

an officer of the Delaware State Police or member of the Department of Insurance's Fraud Prevention Bureau ("the Fraud Bureau") may confiscate the registration plate of that vehicle at any time absent affirmative proof that the vehicle is currently insured. Prior to any confiscation pursuant to this subsection, the registered owner of a vehicle shall receive notice at least 7 days prior to confiscation by regular and certified mail that such confiscation is to occur, and shall be provided a means to prove that the vehicle has current insurance prior to the indicated confiscation date. The Division of Motor Vehicles and the Justice of the Peace Court shall provide information to the Fraud Bureau and Delaware State Police sufficient to allow those organizations to enforce this subsection. Registration plates confiscated pursuant to this subsection shall be turned over to the Division of Motor Vehicles, which shall follow procedures established pursuant to and consistent with subsection (m) of this section for return of said plates. The Fraud Bureau shall provide its members with sufficient training to ensure safe enforcement of this subsection.

(r) In the event of a suspension of a driver's license pursuant to this section, the Department may issue an occupational license during a period of suspension upon application by the applicant upon a form prescribed by the Department and sworn to by the applicant; provided, that the applicant sets forth in said application that the suspension of such license has created an extreme hardship and that no prior occupational license has been issued within the preceding 12 months; provided, however, that no such occupational license shall be issued until the applicant demonstrates proof of liability insurance on all motor vehicles owned by such applicant or spouse. If the suspension of the driver's license resulted from the arrest and conviction of a person stemming from an incident in which property damage or personal injury occurred, an occupational license shall not be issued, the other provisions of this subsection to the contrary notwithstanding.

(s)(1) Whoever violates any subsection of this section shall be fined for the first offense not less than $1,500 nor more than $2,000 and shall have that person's driving license and/or privileges suspended for 6 months. For each subsequent offense occurring within 3 years of a former offense, that person shall be fined not less than $3,000 nor more than $4,000 and shall have that person's driver's license and/or driving privilege suspended for 6 months. The minimum fine levied for a violation of subsection (a), (b) or (p) of this section shall not be subject to suspension or avoidance for any reason, including the securing of insurance between the time of arrest and sentencing, if the person subject to such fines has been in violation for a period of 30 or more consecutive days unless such person affirmatively proves that the insurer did not send notice to the named insured as required under subsection (l) of this section.

(2) Failure of the owner or operator to produce an insurance identification card for insurance which is in full force and effect at the time of the offense shall be presumptive evidence that such person is operating such person's vehicle without having insurance required by this title.

(3) Notwithstanding the penalties specified above, anyone convicted of driving without minimum insurance as required in this section shall have such person's privileges of driving suspended in this State until such time as such person has furnished proof of insurance to the Division of Motor Vehicles.

(t)(1) The Division of Motor Vehicles shall periodically select for verification of the required insurance all vehicles owned, individually or jointly, by a person who has been previously convicted of violating the provisions of this subchapter.

(2) The Division of Motor Vehicles may determine the accuracy of information relating to the proof of required insurance satisfying the provisions of this section.

(u)(1) The Division of Motor Vehicles may require evidence that any motor vehicle registered in a person's name, individually or jointly, is covered by the insurance required by this chapter, at a conference, hearing or interview:

a. As a result of point accumulation on the owner's motor vehicle driving record pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Division of Motor Vehicles; or

b. To show cause why the person's license should not be suspended or revoked pursuant to the laws of this State or the rules and regulations of the Division of Motor Vehicles.

(2) The Division of Motor Vehicles may require evidence that any vehicle registered in a person's name, individually or jointly, is covered by the insurance required by this chapter, at the time of reinstatement of driving privileges.

(3) The evidence of insurance shall be on a form prescribed by the Division of Motor Vehicles and certified by an insurer or its agent.

(4) Failure to submit the required proof under this section shall be prima facie evidence that any vehicle registered in that person's name, either individually or jointly, is uninsured and the owner shall be subject to the penalties as prescribed in subsections (l) and (m) of this section.

(v)(1) If a person has been issued an equipment inspection notice pursuant to § 2144 of this title, the person shall send within 30 days to the Division of Motor Vehicles the evidence of insurance or security required by this chapter on a form prescribed by the Division and certified by an insurer or agent.

(2) A failure to submit the evidence required by paragraph (v)(1) of this section shall result in the suspension of the registration of the vehicle cited and the assessment of the uninsured motorist penalty fee under this section.

(w) The Division of Motor Vehicle shall conduct a study or cause such study to be conducted to assess the feasibility and costs of establishing a direct computer link between the Division of Motor Vehicle's registration files and the insurance companies' data bases for the purposes of allowing the Division to conduct "real time" status reports of uninsured motorists. The Division of Motor Vehicles shall also conduct a study or cause such study to be conducted to analyze the ramifications of implementing an uninsured motorist program in the State similar to that of Virginia's Uninsured Motorist Program.

(x) Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of the Code, there shall be established a special fund of the State to be known as the D.M.V.T. Fund. The Secretary of Finance shall, commencing upon the effective date of this legislation, and commencing at the beginning of each fiscal year thereafter, cause to be deposited into the D.M.V.T. Fund amounts received as payments of fines and costs assessed by the Justice of the Peace Courts and/or the Court of Common Pleas under this section, until the amount deposited in said fiscal year shall equal $150,000.

(y) The purpose of the D.M.V.T. Fund is to provide for the administrative costs associated with this Act. Any balance in the D.M.V.T. Fund as of the last day of the fiscal year in excess of $15,000 shall be deposited to the General Fund. The Secretary of Finance shall make deposits to the D.M.V.T. Fund as required under this section commencing after August 1, 1995.

(z) The Director of the Division of Motor Vehicles may adopt such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with this title, as are necessary to enforce this section.

21 Del. C. 1953, § 2118; 58 Del. Laws, c. 98, § 1; 58 Del. Laws, c. 353, § 1; 58 Del. Laws, c. 443; 59 Del. Laws, c. 179, §§ 1-3; 59 Del. Laws, c. 574, §§ 1, 3; 60 Del. Laws, c. 337, §§ 1, 2; 60 Del. Laws, c. 433, § 2; 61 Del. Laws, c. 66, § 1; 61 Del. Laws, c. 292, §§ 1-3; 61 Del. Laws, c. 320, § 1; 61 Del. Laws, c. 417, §§ 1, 2; 62 Del. Laws, c. 280, § 1; 63 Del. Laws, c. 149, § 1; 63 Del. Laws, c. 405, § 1; 64 Del. Laws, c. 198, §§ 1, 2; 64 Del. Laws, c. 356, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 177, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 324, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 503, § 4; 67 Del. Laws, c. 177, §§ 1, 2; 68 Del. Laws, c. 331, §§ 1-4; 68 Del. Laws, c. 336, § 1; 69 Del. Laws, c. 116, § 3; 69 Del. Laws, c. 155, §§ 1, 2; 69 Del. Laws, c. 197, § 1; 69 Del. Laws, c. 413, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 247, §§ 1-3; 72 Del. Laws, c. 20, § 1; 72 Del. Laws, c. 58, §§ 1, 2; 72 Del. Laws, c. 219, § 1; 72 Del. Laws, c. 380, §§ 1, 2; 74 Del. Laws, c. 110, § 139; 74 Del. Laws, c. 400, § 1; 75 Del. Laws, c. 59, § 1; 76 Del. Laws, c. 128, § 1; 77 Del. Laws, c. 419, § 1; 78 Del. Laws, c. 247, § 2; 79 Del. Laws, c. 269, § 1.;

(a) It shall be unlawful for any person to possess, manufacture, sell, distribute or circulate a fictitious insurance identification card or any fictitious proof of insurance. A fictitious insurance identification card shall be any document in written or electronic format not manufactured in compliance with § 2118(o) of this title. Fictitious proof of insurance shall be any document in written or electronic format not produced in compliance with § 2118(o) of this title.

(b) It shall also be unlawful for any person to possess, manufacture, sell, distribute or circulate a blank insurance identification card. However, the following shall be exempt from this subsection: Office of the Insurance Commissioner, insurance companies or bonding companies or their employees or agents or employees of such agents in the discharge of their employment duties.

(c) Any person convicted of a violation of subsection (a) or (b) of this section shall be fined for the first offense not less than $500, nor more than $1500, or imprisoned not less than 30 days, nor more than 60 days, or both. For each subsequent violation, the person shall be fined not less than $1000, nor more than $2000, or be imprisoned not less than 60 days, nor more than 6 months, or both.

68 Del. Laws, c. 406, § 1; 79 Del. Laws, c. 269, § 2.;

(a) The purpose of this section is to ensure reasonably prompt processing and payment of sums owed by insurers to their policyholders and other persons covered by their policies pursuant to § 2118 of this title, and to prevent the financial hardship and damage to personal credit ratings that can result from the unjustifiable delays of such payments.

(b) When an insurer is notified in writing by the claimant that the claimant desires to file an initial claim for benefits pursuant to § 2118(a)(2) of this title, the insurer shall, no later than 10 days following the insurer's receipt of said notification, provide that claimant with a form for filing such a claim. For purposes of this subsection an insurer shall be deemed to have provided a claimant with a form for filing a claim when the insurer deposits such a form in an envelope addressed to such claimant with the United States Postal Service and with postage affixed for first class (or better) delivery. If an insurer fails to comply with the provisions of this subsection, the insurer shall pay the claimant a sum equal to 1 percent of the amount due as of the date on which the claim was required to be provided for each day beyond the prescribed period for compliance, not to exceed $5,000.

(c) When an insurer receives a written request for payment of a claim for benefits pursuant to § 2118(a)(2) of this title, the insurer shall promptly process the claim and shall, no later than 30 days following the insurer's receipt of said written request for first-party insurance benefits and documentation that the treatment or expense is compensable pursuant to § 2118(a) of this title, make payment of the amount of claimed benefits that are due to the claimant or, if said claim is wholly or partly denied, provide the claimant with a written explanation of the reasons for such denial. If an insurer fails to comply with the provisions of this subsection, then the amount of unpaid benefits due from the insurer to the claimant shall be increased at the monthly rate of:

(1) One and one-half percent from the thirty-first day through the sixtieth day; and

(2) Two percent from the sixty-first day through the one hundred and twentieth day; and

(3) Two and one-half percent after the one hundred and twenty-first day.

(d) If an insurer fails to comply with subsection (b) or (c) of this section, the claimant may recover the amount due through a civil action in any court of competent jurisdiction or through a Delaware Insurance Commissioner's Arbitration Proceeding, consistent with § 2118(j)(1)-(9) of this title, at the option of the claimant. Any judgment entered for a claimant in a civil action or arbitration proceeding brought under this section shall include, in addition to the amount due and any additional amount provided for by subsections (b) and (c) of this section, an award for the costs of the action and the prosecution of the action, including reasonable attorney's fees; provided, however, that the costs of the action and the prosecution of the action, including reasonable attorney's fees shall only be awarded if it is found that the insurer acted in bad faith. The burden of proving that the insurer acted in bad faith shall be on the claimant. Any sums other than the original claim paid under this subsection shall not reduce the amount of coverage available under the insurance policy that is the basis for the claim.

(e) If an action pursuant to subsection (d) of this section is not filed within 90 days of the date of denial or the date when benefits are due as provided for in subsection (c) of this section, the penalties prescribed in that subsection shall begin to run from the date of the filing of said action.

(f) The remedies provided by this section are in addition to all other remedies available to the claimant under state and federal statutory or common law.

69 Del. Laws, c. 116, § 2; 69 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) No vehicle shall be registered or reregistered as a "commercial" vehicle under this chapter until the Division of Motor Vehicles has verified a legal entity's good standing with the Delaware Secretary of State and compliance with Title 30, including proof of a valid occupational or business license.

(b) The Secretary of the Department of Transportation in conjunction with the Secretary of the Department of Finance shall promulgate such requirements of proof as they shall deem necessary for the administration and implementation of subsection (a) of this section.

60 Del. Laws, c. 291, § 1; 74 Del. Laws, c. 110, § 41; 79 Del. Laws, c. 399, § 1.;

The requirements for registration and inspection of special mobile equipment are waived.

64 Del. Laws, c. 259, § 2.;

(a) The Division of Motor Vehicles may register a specialized vehicle which will not meet the Division's standards for inspection or performance. The specialized vehicle shall be registered with restrictions as determined by the Division to be in the best interest of highway safety.

(b) The annual registration fee shall be the same fee as assessed to a vehicle or motor vehicle in a similar class and according to the fees in this chapter.

(c) Specialized vehicles shall be subject to annual inspection in accordance with regulations as adopted by the Division of Motor Vehicles.

(d) Specialized self-propelled vehicles shall not be registered unless such vehicles are insured pursuant to § 2118 of this title.

62 Del. Laws, c. 150, § 2.;