TITLE 18

Insurance Code

Insurance

CHAPTER 3. THE INSURANCE COMMISSIONER


(a) The Insurance Commissioner shall be the chief officer of the Insurance Department.

(b) The Commissioner shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at a general election for a term of 4 years and shall be commissioned by the Governor.

(c) Subject to prior qualification by the oath required by § 302 of this title, the Commissioner shall assume office on the 1st Tuesday of January after election. The Commissioner shall hold office for the term for which elected and thereafter as provided by article XV, § 5, of the Constitution.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 302; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1.;

Before entering upon the duties of office the Commissioner shall take and subscribe the oath or affirmation prescribed by article XIV of the Constitution.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 303; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner may be removed from office for reasonable cause, as provided by article III, § 13, of the Constitution.

(b) A vacancy in the office of Commissioner shall be filled by appointment by the Governor, as provided in article III, § 9, of the Constitution.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 305; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1.;

The Commissioner shall have a seal of office of a suitable design and bearing the words "Insurance Commissioner of the State of Delaware."

18 Del. C. 1953, § 306; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1.;

(a) The Department may operate 2 offices, the principal office in Dover and a branch office in Wilmington.

(b) There is hereby created within the office of the Insurance Commissioner a special fund to be designated as the Insurance Commissioner Regulatory Revolving Fund which shall be used in the operation of the office of the State Insurance Commissioner in the performance of the various functions and duties required of the office by law.

(c) All supervisory assessments, examination fees and any rate filing or form filing fees paid by insurers and collected by the Commissioner pursuant to this title shall be deposited in the State Treasury to the credit of said Insurance Commissioner Regulatory Revolving Fund to be used in the operation of the office as authorized by the General Assembly in its annual operating budget. All other fees and/or taxes collected by the Commissioner shall not be deposited in said Fund but shall be deposited in the General Fund of the State.

(d) Funds in the Insurance Commissioner Regulatory Revolving Fund shall be used by the Commissioner in the performance of the various functions and duties involved in the oversight of insurance companies as provided by law, subject to annual appropriations by the General Assembly for salaries and other operating expenses of the office.

(e) The maximum unencumbered balance which shall remain in the Insurance Commissioner Regulatory Revolving Fund at the end of any fiscal year effective as of June 30, 2005; shall be $1,400,000; and any amount in excess thereof shall cause the Insurance Commissioner to reduce assessments or fees collected in the next fiscal year by an amount sufficient to reduce the Regulatory Revolving Fund fiscal year end balance back to or below $1,400,000.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 308; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 60 Del. Laws, c. 283, § 1; 65 Del. Laws, c. 4, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 73 Del. Laws, c. 74, § 99; 74 Del. Laws, c. 68, § 77; 75 Del. Laws, c. 89, § 116.;

(a) The Commissioner may appoint and may remove a Deputy. Before entering upon the duties of office the Deputy shall take and file the constitutional oath of office.

(b) The Deputy may exercise such powers and discharge such duties as the Commissioner may authorize.

(c) The Deputy shall devote full time to the Department, shall not engage in any other insurance-related activity for fee or compensation and the State shall pay a salary at the rate provided by law in full compensation for all services.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 309; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner may appoint and fix the compensation of such examiners, clerks, technical and professional personnel, and other necessary assistants as conduct of the office may require and may revoke such appointments.

(b) The Commissioner may from time to time contract for and procure such additional and independent actuarial, rating, legal and other technical and professional services as may be required for discharge of the duties of the office.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 310; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner, the Commissioner's Deputy, or any examiner, assistant or employee of the Department, shall not be connected with the management of, nor have a material financial interest in, directly or indirectly, any insurer, insurance agency, or broker or insurance transaction, except as policy holder or claimant under a policy; except that as to matters wherein a conflict of interest does not exist on the part of any such individual, the Commissioner may employ or retain from time to time insurance actuaries, examiners, accountants, attorneys or other technicians, who are independently practicing their profession even though from time to time they are similarly employed or retained by insurers or others.

(b) The Commissioner, the Commissioner's Deputy, or any examiner, assistant, employee or technician retained by the Department, shall not be given nor receive, directly or indirectly, any fee, compensation, loan, gift or other thing of value, in addition to the compensation and expense allowance provided by or pursuant to the law of this State, or by contract with the Commissioner, for any service rendered or to be rendered as such Commissioner, Deputy, examiner, assistant, employee, or technician, or in connection therewith.

(c) Subsection (a) of this section shall not be deemed to prohibit receipt by any such person of fully vested commissions or fully vested retirement benefits to which entitled by reason of services performed prior to becoming Commissioner or prior to employment by the Commissioner.

(d) This section shall not be deemed to prohibit appointment and functioning of the Commissioner as process agent of insurers or of nonresident licensees as provided for in this title.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 311; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner may delegate to the Commissioner's Deputy, examiner or an employee of the Department the exercise or discharge in the Commissioner's name of any power, duty or function, whether ministerial, discretionary or of whatever character vested in or imposed upon the Commissioner under this title.

(b) The official act of any such person acting in the Commissioner's name and by the Commissioner's authority shall be deemed an official act of the Commissioner.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 312; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner shall enforce and execute the duties imposed by this title.

(b) The Commissioner shall have the powers and authority expressly vested by or reasonably implied from this title.

(c) With respect to enforcement of the payment of fees, charges and taxes, all the provisions of law conferring powers and duties upon the State Treasurer shall also apply to the Commissioner.

(d) The Commissioner shall have such additional rights, powers and duties as may be provided by other laws of this State.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 313; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner may make reasonable rules and regulations necessary for, or as an aid to, the administration or effectuation of any provision of this title. No such rule or regulation shall extend, modify or conflict with any law of this State or the reasonable implications thereof.

(b) The Commissioner shall adopt and promulgate rules and regulations in accordance with the procedures set forth in the State Administrative Procedures Act, Chapter 101 of Title 29.

(c) Wilful violation of any such rule or regulation shall subject the violator to such suspension or revocation of certificate of authority or license, or to such administrative fine in lieu thereof, as may be applicable under this title, for violation of the provision to which such rule or regulation relates; but no penalty shall apply to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any such rule or regulation, notwithstanding that such rule or regulation, after such act or omission, may be amended or rescinded or determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 314; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1.;

(a) Orders and notices of the Commissioner shall be effective only when in writing signed by the Commissioner or by the Commissioner's authority.

(b) Except as otherwise expressly provided by law as to particular orders, every order of the Commissioner shall state its effective date and shall concisely state:

(1) Its intent or purpose;

(2) The grounds on which based;

(3) The provisions of this title pursuant to which action is taken or proposed to be taken; but failure to so designate a particular provision shall not deprive the Commissioner of the right to rely thereon except where expressly provided to the contrary.

(c) Except as may be provided by particular law or regulation, any order, notice, bulletin or the like may be given to the person or persons affected thereby by any 1 or more of the following methods:

(1) First-class or bulk mail, postage prepaid, addressed to such person at the person's principal place of business or residence as last of record in the Department. Delivery of said item shall be deemed to have been given when deposited in a mail depository of the United States Postal Service;

(2) By receipted ground or air commercial delivery service. Delivery of said item shall be deemed to have been given when a receipt therefor is obtained from said commercial delivery service;

(3) By publication in the Register of Regulations; or

(4) By publication on the Internet, including but not limited to the Department's webpage, the webpage of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), and the webpage of the National Insurance Producer Registry (NIPR).

18 Del. C. 1953, § 315; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 73 Del. Laws, c. 312, § 72.;

(a) The Commissioner, through the Attorney General of this State, may invoke the aid of the Superior Court, through proceedings instituted in any county of this State, to enforce any lawful order made or action taken by the Commissioner. In such proceedings the Superior Court may make such orders, either preliminary or final, as it deems proper under the facts established before it.

(b) If the Commissioner has reason to believe that any person has violated this title or any other law applicable to insurance operations, for which criminal prosecution is provided, and, in the Commissioner's opinion, would be in order, the Commissioner shall give the information relative thereto to the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall promptly institute such action or proceedings against such person as in the Attorney General's opinion the information may require or justify.

(c) The Attorney General upon request of the Commissioner is authorized to proceed in the courts of any other state or in any federal court or agency to enforce an order or decision of any court proceeding or in any administrative proceeding before the Commissioner.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 316; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner shall carefully preserve in the Department and in permanent form all papers and records relating to the business of the Department and shall hand the same over to the successor in office.

(b) Except where the Commissioner deems the same to be prejudicial to the public interest, the Commissioner shall permit inspection of the papers, records and filings in the Department by persons found to have an identified and proper interest therein.

(c) The Commissioner may destroy unneeded or obsolete records and filings in the Department in accordance with provisions and procedures applicable to administrative agencies of this State in general.

(d) Nothing in this title shall prohibit the storage of documents and records by use of electronic means or media.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 317; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

Any instrument duly executed by the Commissioner, and authenticated by the Commissioner's seal of office, shall be received in evidence in the courts of this State, and copies of papers and records in the Department so authenticated shall be received as evidence with the same effect as the originals.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 318; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner shall communicate, on request of the insurance supervisory official of any state, province or country, any information which it is the Commissioner's duty by law to ascertain respecting authorized insurers. Any communication of documents, materials or other information, including confidential and privileged documents, materials or information, shall be in accordance with the provisions of this section, and any other applicable provisions of this title.

(b) The Commissioner may be a member of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, the International Association of Insurance Supervisors or any successor organization and may participate in and support other cooperative activities of public officials having supervision of the business of insurance.

(c) The Commissioner may enter into agreements governing sharing, confidentiality, security and use of information consistent with this section and other applicable provisions of this title. The Commissioner shall maintain, as confidential, any confidential documents or information received from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners or the International Association of Insurance Supervisors, and such documents and information shall not be subject to subpoena and may not be made public by the Commissioner or any other person unless the prior written consent of the entity providing the documents or information and the company to which it pertains has been obtained. In addition, any documents or information received by the Commissioner from state or federal insurance, banking or securities regulators or similar regulators in a foreign country which are confidential in such jurisdictions shall be maintained as confidential by the Commissioner, shall not be subject to subpoena and may not be made public by the Commissioner or any other person unless the prior written consent of the entity providing the documents or information and the company to which it pertains has been obtained. The Commissioner may share any information, including confidential information, with the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, the International Association of Insurance Supervisors, or state or federal insurance, banking or securities regulators or similar regulators in a foreign country so long as the Commissioner determines that such entities agree to maintain the same level of confidentiality in their jurisdictions as is available in this State and are authorized to do so.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 320; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 79 Del. Laws, c. 208, § 1.;

In addition to examinations and investigations expressly authorized, the Commissioner may conduct such investigations of insurance matters as the Commissioner may deem proper, upon reasonable cause, to determine whether any person has violated this title or to secure information useful in the lawful administration of any such provision. Except as otherwise provided in this title, the cost of such investigations shall be borne by the State.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 321; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner or any of the Commissioner's examiners may conduct an examination under this section of any company as often as the Commissioner in the Commissioner's sole discretion deems appropriate, but shall, at a minimum, conduct an examination of every insurer licensed in this State but not less frequently than every 5 years. In scheduling and determining the nature, scope and frequency of the examinations, the Commissioner shall consider such matters as the results of financial statement analyses and ratios, changes in management or ownership, actuarial opinions, reports of independent certified public accountants and other criteria as set forth in the Examiner's Handbook adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners and in effect when the Commissioner exercises discretion under this section. Examination of an alien insurer shall be limited to its insurance transactions, assets, trust deposits and affairs in the United States except as otherwise required by the Commissioner.

(b) The Commissioner shall examine, in like manner, each insurer applying for an initial certificate of authority to transact insurance in this State.

(c) In lieu of making an examination, the Commissioner may accept, in the Commissioner's discretion, a full report of the most recent examination of a foreign or alien insurer, certified to by the insurance supervisory official of another state.

(d) As far as practical, the examination of a foreign or alien insurer shall be made in cooperation with the insurance supervisory officials of other states in which the insurer transacts business.

(e) In lieu of an examination under this section of any foreign or alien insurer licensed in this State, the Commissioner may accept an examination report on such company as prepared by the insurance department for the company's state of domicile or port-of-entry state, so long as:

(1) The insurance department, at the time of the examination, was accredited under the National Association of Insurance Commissioners' Financial Regulation Standards and Accreditation Program; or

(2) The examination is performed under the supervision of an accredited insurance department, or with the participation of 1 or more examiners, who are employed by such an accredited state insurance department, and who, after a review of the examination work papers and report, state under oath that the examination was performed in a manner consistent with the standards and procedures required by their insurance department.

(f) The Commissioner shall also conduct examinations as required by § 2301E of this title.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 322; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 68 Del. Laws, c. 51, § 1; 69 Del. Laws, c. 92, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 79 Del. Laws, c. 55, § 6.;

For the purpose of ascertaining compliance with law or relationships and transactions between any such person and any insurer or proposed insurer, the Commissioner may examine, as often as the Commissioner deems advisable, the accounts, records, documents and transactions pertaining to or affecting insurance affairs or proposed insurance affairs of:

(1) Any insurance agent, solicitor, broker, general agent, adjuster, insurer representative or person holding oneself out as any of the foregoing;

(2) Any person having a contract under which the person enjoys in fact the exclusive or dominant right to manage or control an insurer;

(3) Any person holding the shares of voting stock or the policyholder proxies of a domestic insurer for the purpose of controlling the management thereof, as voting trustee or otherwise;

(4) Any person in this State, who is engaged in, or proposing to be engaged in, holding oneself out as engaging, proposing or assisting in the promotion, formation or financing of an insurer, insurance holding corporation, corporation or other group, to finance an insurer or the production of its business.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 323; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner shall conduct each examination in an expeditious, fair, and impartial manner. Upon determining that an examination should be conducted, the Commissioner or the Commissioner's designee shall issue an examination warrant appointing 1 or more examiners to perform the examination and instructing them as to the scope of the examination. In conducting the examination, the examiner shall observe those guidelines and procedures set forth in the Examiner's Handbook adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. The Commissioner may also employ such other guidelines or procedures as the Commissioner may deem appropriate.

(b) Upon any such examination the Commissioner or examiner may examine, under oath, any officer, agent or other individual believed to have material information regarding the affairs under examination.

(c) Every person being examined, the person's officers, attorneys, employees, agents and representatives, shall make freely available to the Commissioner, or the Commissioner's examiners, the accounts, records, documents, files, information, assets and matters of such person, in the person's possession or control, relating to the subject of the examination and shall facilitate the examination.

(d) If the Commissioner or examiner finds any accounts or records to be inadequate or inadequately kept or posted, the Commissioner may employ experts to reconstruct, rewrite, post or balance them at the expense of the person being examined if such person has failed to maintain, complete or correct such records or accounting, after the Commissioner or examiner has given the person written notice and a reasonable opportunity to do so.

(e) Neither the Commissioner, nor any examiner, shall remove any record, account, document, file or other property of the person being examined from the offices or place of such person, except with the written consent of such person in advance of such removal or pursuant to an order of court duly obtained. This provision shall not be deemed to affect the making and removal of copies or abstracts of any such record, account, document or file.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 324; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 68 Del. Laws, c. 51, § 2; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner or the Commissioner's examiner shall make a full and true written report of every such examination made by the Commissioner or the Commissioner's examiner and shall therein certify under oath the report and findings.

(b) The report shall contain only information appearing upon the books, records, documents and papers of, or relating to, the person or affairs being examined or ascertained from testimony of individuals under oath concerning the affairs of such person, together with such conclusions and recommendations as may reasonably be warranted by such information.

(c) No later than 60 days following the completion of the examination, the examiner in charge shall file with the Department a verified written report of examination under oath. Upon receipt of the verified report, the Department shall transmit the report to the company examined, together with a notice which shall afford the company examined a reasonable opportunity of not more than 30 days to make a written submission or rebuttal with respect to any matters contained in the examination report. If the company so requests in writing within such 30-day period, the Commissioner shall grant a hearing as to the report and shall not file the report until after the hearing and after such modifications have been made therein as the Commissioner deems proper.

(d) The Commissioner shall furnish a copy of the report to the person examined not less than 20 days prior to filing the same in the Department and may, in the Commissioner's discretion, also furnish a copy of the report to each member of the examinee's board of directors if the person examined is a corporation. If such person so requests in writing within such 20 day period, the Commissioner shall grant a hearing as to the report and shall not so file the report until after the hearing and after such modifications have been made therein as the Commissioner deems proper.

(e) The report when so filed shall be admissible in any action or proceeding brought by the Commissioner against the person examined or against its officers, employees or agents. In any such action or proceeding, the Commissioner or the Commissioner's examiners may, however, at any time testify and offer proper evidence as to information secured or matters discovered during the course of the examination, whether or not a written report of the examination has been either made, furnished or filed with the Department.

(f) The Commissioner may withhold from public inspection any examination or investigation report for so long as the Commissioner deems such withholding to be necessary for the protection of the person examined against unwarranted injury or to be in the public interest.

(g) All working papers, recorded information, documents and copies thereof produced by, obtained by, or disclosed to the Commissioner or any other person in the course of an examination made under this chapter, or in the course of analysis by the Commissioner of the financial condition or market conduct of a company, shall be given confidential treatment and are not subject to subpoena and may not be made public by the Commissioner or any other person except to insurance departments of any state or country, or to law-enforcement officials of this or any other state or agency of the federal government at any time, so long as such agency or office receiving the report or matters relating thereto agrees in writing to hold it confidential and in a manner consistent with this section, unless the prior written consent of the company to which it pertains has been obtained.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 325; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 68 Del. Laws, c. 51, § 3; 69 Del. Laws, c. 92, §§ 2,3; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 79 Del. Laws, c. 208, § 2.;

(a) The expense of examination of an insurer or of any person referred to in § 319(2) of this title (management or control of an insurer under contract) or § 319(4) of this title (promoters, etc.) shall be borne by the person examined. Such expense shall include only the reasonable and proper expenses of the Commissioner, and the Commissioner's examiners and assistants, including expert assistance, and a reasonable per diem as to such examiners and assistants as necessarily incurred in the examination.

(b) Such person examined shall promptly pay the examination expense upon presentation by the Commissioner, or the Commissioner's examiner, of a reasonably detailed written account thereof.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 326; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The Commissioner may hold a hearing without request by others for any purpose within the scope of this title.

(b) The Commissioner shall hold a hearing:

(1) If required by any other provision of this title; or

(2) Upon written application for a hearing by a person aggrieved by any act, threatened act or failure of the Commissioner to act, or by any report, rule, regulation or order of the Commissioner (other than an order for the holding of a hearing, or order on a hearing, or pursuant to such order, of which hearing such person had notice). Any such application must be filed in the Department within 90 days after such person knew or reasonably should have known of such act, threatened act, failure, report, rule, regulation or order, unless a different period is provided for by other laws applicable to the particular matter and, in which case, such other law shall govern.

(c) Any such application for a hearing shall briefly state the respects in which the applicant is so aggrieved, together with the grounds to be relied upon as a basis for the relief to be sought at the hearing.

(d) If the Commissioner finds that the application is made in good faith, that the applicant would be so aggrieved if the grounds are established and that such grounds otherwise justify the hearing, the Commissioner shall hold the hearing within 30 days after filing of the application unless postponed by mutual consent. Failure to hold the hearing upon application of a person entitled, as hereinabove provided, shall constitute a denial of the relief sought and shall be the equivalent of a final order of the Commissioner on hearing for the purpose of an appeal under § 328 of this title.

(e) Pending the hearing and decision, the Commissioner may suspend or postpone the effective date of the previous action.

(f) To the extent that it does not conflict with the provisions of this chapter, the Administrative Procedures Act, Chapter 101 of Title 29, shall govern all aspects of the Department's administrative proceedings, including, but not limited to, the following:

(1) Notice of hearing;

(2) Conduct of hearing;

(3) Ex parte consultations;

(4) Proposed order;

(5) Record retention; and

(6) Decision and final order.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 327; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) Except where a longer period is expressly provided in this title, the Commissioner shall give written notice of the hearing to all parties not less than 20 days in advance.

(b) If any such hearing is to be held for consideration of rules and regulations of the Commissioner or of other matters which, under subsection (a) of this section, would otherwise require separate notices to more than 30 persons, in lieu of other notice the Commissioner may give notice of the hearing by publication in a newspaper of general circulation in this State, at least once each week during the 4 weeks immediately preceding the week in which the hearing is to be held; except that the Commissioner shall mail such notice to all persons who have requested the same in writing in advance and have paid to the Commissioner the reasonable amount fixed by the Commissioner to cover the cost thereof.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 328; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

The Commissioner may hold a hearing in Dover or any other place of convenience to parties and witnesses as the Commissioner determines. The Commissioner, or the Commissioner's designee, shall preside at the hearing and shall expedite the hearing and all procedures involved therein.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 329; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) As to the subject of any examination, investigation or hearing being conducted by the Commissioner, the Commissioner may subpoena witnesses and administer oaths or affirmations, and examine any individual under oath, or take depositions, and by subpoena duces tecum may require the production of documentary and other evidence. Any delegation by the Commissioner of power of subpoena shall be in writing.

(b) Witness fees and mileage, if claimed, shall be allowed the same as for testimony in a Superior Court. Witness fees, mileage and the actual expense necessarily incurred in securing attendance of witnesses and their testimony shall be itemized and shall be a part of the examination expense to be paid by the person being examined, where payment of examination expense by such person is otherwise provided for in this title, or paid by the person as to whom such proceedings, other than as part of an examination, are held if, in such proceedings, such person is found to have been in violation of the law, or by the person, if other than the Commissioner, at whose request the hearing is held.

(c) Subpoenas of witnesses shall be served in the same manner and at the same cost as if issued by a Superior Court. If any individual fails to obey a subpoena issued and served hereunder with respect to any matter or evidence concerning which the individual may be lawfully interrogated or required to produce for examination, upon application of the Commissioner, the Superior Court, in any county in which is pending the proceeding at which such individual is so required to appear, or the Superior Court in the county in which such individual resides, may issue an order requiring the individual to comply with the subpoena and to appear and testify or produce the evidence subpoenaed; and any failure to obey such order of the Court may be punished by the Court as a contempt thereof.

(d) Any person knowingly giving false testimony under oath or making a false affirmation as to any matter material to any such examination, investigation or hearing, upon conviction thereof, shall be guilty of perjury.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 330; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) If any individual asks to be excused from attending or testifying or from producing any books, papers, records, contracts, correspondence or other documents in connection with any examination, hearing or investigation being conducted by the Commissioner, or the Commissioner's examiner, on the ground that the testimony or evidence required of the individual may tend to incriminate the individual, or subject the individual to a penalty or forfeiture and shall, by the Attorney General, be directed to give such testimony or produce such evidence, the individual must nonetheless comply with such direction, but the individual shall not thereafter be prosecuted or subjected to any penalty or forfeiture for or on account of any transaction, matter or thing concerning which the individual may have so testified or produced evidence, and no testimony so given or evidence produced shall be received against the individual upon any criminal action, investigation or proceeding; except, however, that no such individual so testifying shall be exempt from prosecution or punishment for any perjury committed by the individual in such testimony, and the testimony or evidence so given or produced shall be admissible against the individual upon any criminal action, investigation or proceeding concerning such perjury, nor shall such individual be exempt from the refusal, suspension or revocation of any license, permission or authority conferred or to be conferred, pursuant to this title.

(b) Any such individual may execute, acknowledge and file in the office of the Commissioner and of the Attorney General a statement expressly waiving such immunity or privilege in respect to any transaction, matter or thing specified in such statement, and thereupon the testimony of such individual or such evidence in relation to such transaction, matter or thing may be received or produced before any judge or justice, court, tribunal, grand jury or otherwise, and if so received or produced such individual shall not be entitled to any immunity or privileges on account of any testimony given or evidence so produced.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 331; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) Except as to matters arising under Chapter 25 of this title (Rates and Rating Organizations), an appeal from the Commissioner shall be taken only from an order on hearing or as to a matter on which the Commissioner has refused or failed to hold a hearing after application therefor or issue an order on hearing as required by § 323 of this title.

(b) Any person who was a party to such hearing or whose pecuniary interests are directly and immediately affected by any such refusal or failure, and who is aggrieved by such order, refusal or failure, may appeal from such order or as to any such matter within 60 days after:

(1) The order on hearing has been mailed or delivered to the persons entitled to receive the same or given by last publication thereof where delivery by publication is permitted; or

(2) The Commissioner has refused or failed to make an order on hearing as required under § 323 of this title; or

(3) The Commissioner has refused or failed to grant or hold a hearing as required under § 323 of this title.

(c) The appeal shall be granted as a matter of right and shall be taken to the Superior Court in any county in this State.

(d) The appeal shall be taken by filing in the Court a verified petition stating the grounds upon which the review is sought, together with a bond with good and sufficient sureties to be approved by the Court, conditioned to pay all costs which may be assessed against the appellant or petitioner in such proceedings and by serving a copy of the petition upon the Commissioner. If the appeal is from the Commissioner's order on hearing, the petitioner shall also deliver to the Commissioner a sufficient number of copies of the petition and the Commissioner shall mail or otherwise furnish a copy thereof to the other parties to the hearing to the same extent as a copy of the Commissioner's order is required to be furnished to the hearing parties under § 323 of this title.

(e) Upon receiving the petition for review, the Commissioner shall cause to be prepared an official record certified by the Commissioner which shall contain a copy of all proceedings and orders of the Commissioner appealed from and the transcript of testimony and evidence or summary record thereof. Within 30 days after the petition is served upon him or her, the Commissioner shall file such official record with the Court in which the appeal is pending.

(f) Upon filing of the petition for review the Court shall have full jurisdiction of the proceeding. Such filing shall not stay the enforcement of the Commissioner's order or action appealed from unless so stayed by order of the Court.

(g) If the appeal is from the Commissioner's order on hearing, the review of the Court shall be limited to matters shown by the Commissioner's official record; otherwise, the review shall be de novo. The Court shall have the power, by preliminary order, to settle questions concerning the completeness and accuracy of the Commissioner's official record.

(h) In its discretion the Court may remand the case to the Commissioner for further proceedings in accordance with the Court's directions or, in advance of judgment and upon a sufficient showing, the Court may remand the case to the Commissioner for the purpose of taking additional testimony or other proceedings.

(i) From the judgment of the Superior Court, either the Commissioner or other party to the appeal may appeal directly to the Supreme Court of the State in the same manner as is provided in civil cases.

18 Del. C. 1953, § 333; 56 Del. Laws, c. 380, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this title or any regulation implementing said title, the Commissioner, upon a finding after notice and hearing conducted in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, that any person, insurer or insurance holding company has violated any provision of this title or any regulation implementing said title, may impose or order an administrative penalty in an amount of money that is reasonable and appropriate in view of the facts and circumstances surrounding the violation. In determining what the amount of penalty shall be, the Commissioner may take into consideration such matters as the nature of the violation, the amount of loss resulting from the violator's conduct, the intent of the violator, the damages caused by the violation, any efforts made by the violator to correct the violation and prevent a reoccurrence, and the recommendations of any hearing officer. In no event shall the administrative penalty per violation exceed $15,000 for those licensed under Chapter 17 of this title, and $50,000 per violation for insurance companies, insurance holding companies and all other persons licensed under this title.

(b) Any administrative penalty imposed pursuant to this section may be in addition to any penalty, fine or sentence ordered by a court in any civil or criminal proceeding.

(c) Any penalty that may be imposed or ordered by the Commissioner after the hearing shall be paid to the State Treasurer for deposit in the General Fund.

65 Del. Laws, c. 165, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1.;

(a) No cause of action shall arise nor shall any liability be imposed against the Commissioner, the Commissioner's authorized representatives or any examiner appointed by the Commissioner for any statements made or conduct performed in good faith while carrying out the provisions of this chapter.

(b) No cause of action shall arise nor shall any liability be imposed against any person for the act of communicating or delivering information or data to the Commissioner or the Commissioner's authorized representative or examiner pursuant to an examination made under this chapter, if such an act of communication or delivery was performed in good faith and without fraudulent intent or intent to deceive.

(c) This section does not abrogate or modify in any way any common law or statutory privilege or immunity heretofore enjoyed by any person identified in subsection (a) of this section.

(d) A person identified in subsection (a) of this section shall be entitled to an award of attorney's fees and costs if they are the prevailing party in a civil cause of action for libel, slander or any other relevant tort arising out of their activities in carrying out the provisions of this chapter and the party bringing the action was not substantially justified in doing so. For purposes of this section a proceeding is "substantially justified" if it had a reasonable basis in law or in fact at the time that it was initiated."

68 Del. Laws, c. 51, § 4; 70 Del. Laws, c. 185, § 1.;

(a) Every insurer providing insurance coverage for homeowners' risks shall be required to submit to arbitration, in the manner set forth in this section, any dispute relating to the amounts owed under any claim for losses or damages by an insured claiming to have suffered losses or damages under the contract. Disputes relating to whether coverage exists and under what terms and conditions the coverage exists shall not be subject to the arbitration process established in this section. Notwithstanding the foregoing, where the insurance policy provides an arbitration or appraisal provision in a form approved by the Insurance Department, the arbitration mandated by this subsection shall not apply.

(b) All arbitration shall be administered by the Insurance Commissioner or the Insurance Commissioner's nominee.

(c) The Insurance Commissioner or the Insurance Commissioner's nominee shall establish panels of arbitrators in accordance with the rules and regulations which shall be promulgated pursuant to this section. No cause of action shall arise nor any liability imposed against any individual appointed to the panel for any conduct performed in good faith while carrying out the provisions of this section.

(d) Any request by an insured for arbitration shall be in writing and mailed to the Insurance Commissioner within 90 days from the date an offer of settlement or denial of coverage or liability has been made by an insurer. Neither party shall be held to have waived any of its rights by an act relating to arbitration and either party shall have a right to trial de novo to the Superior Court so long as notice of appeal is filed with that Court in the manner set forth by its rules within 90 days of the date of the arbitration decision being rendered.

(e) The Insurance Commissioner shall establish a schedule of fees for arbitration which shall not exceed $75.

(f) The fee for arbitration shall be payable to the Department of Insurance at the time of the filing of the request for arbitration and shall be maintained in a special fund identified as the "Arbitration Fund", which shall remain separate and segregated from the General Fund. The compensation paid to the arbitration panel shall be payable from this fund.

70 Del. Laws, c. 173, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.;

(a) The following definitions shall apply with respect to this section:

(1) "Adverse determination" means a benefit denial, reduction or termination, a denial of certification, or both.

(2) "Benefit denial" means the denial, in whole or in part, of payment or reimbursement for health care services rendered or health care supplies provided to any person claiming benefits under an insurance policy delivered or issued for delivery in Delaware.

(3) "Carrier" in this section shall have the same meaning applied to it at § 3343(a)(1) of this title.

(4) "Covered person" means a person who claims to be entitled to receive benefits from a carrier.

(5) "Denial of certification" means a determination that an admission or continued stay, or course of treatment, or other covered health care service does not satisfy the insurance policy's clinical requirements for appropriateness, necessity, health care setting and/or level of care.

(6) "Emergency review" means an IRP review involving an imminent, emergent or serious threat to the health of the claimant.

(7) "Health plan" shall have the same meaning as "health benefit plan" as defined at § 3343(a)(2) of this title.

(8) "Insurance policy" shall have the meaning assigned to it at § 2702 of this title, and shall also include all health plans and policies for the payment for, provision of or reimbursement for medical services, supplies or both issued by insurers, health services corporations or managed care organizations.

(9) "Internal review process" or "IRP" means the procedure for an internal review of an adverse determination pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Every carrier shall establish and maintain an IRP approved by the Insurance Commissioner.

(c) The Insurance Commissioner shall approve those IRPs that meet the following minimum criteria:

(1) Written notice. — The IRP must provide for written notice of the internal review procedure to covered persons, annually and following any adverse determination.

(2) Requests for review of adverse determinations. — The IRP must permit covered persons to submit requests for internal reviews of adverse determinations ("grievances") orally or in writing. Grievances must be submitted within 30 days of receipt by the covered person of written notice of an adverse determination. The carrier must provide written forms for submission of grievances. Upon receipt of an oral grievance or a written grievance that does not contain sufficient information, the carrier must immediately provide the covered person with a written form upon which to make his or her grievance, and the carrier may require that an oral or insufficient written grievance be submitted in writing within 10 days of the covered person's receipt of the written form. A grievance shall be considered as received by the carrier when a written form, which the covered person purports to be complete, is received by the carrier.

(3) Instructions on written form. — The written form referred to in paragraph (c)(2) of this section shall inform the covered person of the information necessary to pursue an internal grievance of an adverse decision.

(4) Prompt response to written grievances. — The IRP shall provide that within 5 business days of receipt of a written grievance, the carrier shall provide written acknowledgement of the grievance, including the name, address and telephone number of the individual or department designated by the carrier to respond to the grievance.

(5) Speedy review of grievances. — That IRP shall require that all grievances be decided in an expeditious manner, and in any event, no more than:

a. 72 hours after the receipt of all necessary information relating to an emergency review;

b. 30 days after the receipt of all necessary information in the case of requests for referrals or determinations concerning whether a requested benefit is covered pursuant to the contract; and

c. 45 days after the receipt of all necessary information in all other instances.

A grievance shall be considered decided when the carrier has made its final decision on the subject of the review and has deposited written notice of that decision in the mail, in accordance with paragraphs (c)(7) and (8) of this section.

(6) Assignment of qualified personnel. — The IRP shall provide that when the subject of the grievance relates to medical or clinical matters, including medical necessity and appropriateness of treatment, the health carrier shall assign licensed, certified or registered health care personnel with expertise in the field implicated by the request for review to conduct the review. The review shall be conducted by personnel other than those who made the initial adverse determination.

(7) Written notice of decisions. — The IRP shall provide that within 5 days after a grievance is decided in the manner described above, the insured shall be provided with written notice of the disposition of that grievance. In cases where the grievance has been decided in a manner that does not pay the claim in its entirety, the carrier shall provide the insured with a letter fully stating the reasons for the disposition (including specific policy language relied upon and any other documents relied upon) and the clinical rationale for the determination in cases where the determination has a clinical basis. The carrier's written notice shall also inform the insured of the appropriate manner for the insured to pursue an external review of the carrier's decision. Finally, the carrier's written notice shall inform the insured of the mediation services offered by the Department of Insurance, but shall clearly inform the insured in layman's terms that mediation does not change the deadlines imposed by § 6416 of this title or this section. The Department of Insurance shall inform any person with rights under § 6416 of this title or this section of those rights.

(8) Manner of notice of decisions. — Written notice of the review decision shall be deposited in the mail, addressed to the last known address of the covered person. In the case of emergency reviews, the carrier shall also make reasonable efforts to notify the covered person immediately following the determination of the grievance and the written notice of determination shall be deposited in the mail, addressed to the last known address of the claimant, within 48 hours after the receipt of all information necessary to complete the review. For cases involving a denial, reduction or termination of benefits where the external review may be conducted pursuant to this section, written notice shall be mailed requesting delivery confirmation by the United State Postal Service.

(d) Every carrier shall submit a report on its internal review process on an annual basis to the Insurance Commissioner in accordance with regulations established by the Department.

(e) With respect to adverse determinations that are subject to review by the Department of Insurance pursuant to § 6416(f) of this title, the Insurance Commissioner shall develop regulations providing for arbitration of such adverse determinations. Such regulations shall contain the following provisions:

(1) Requests for arbitration shall be in writing and mailed to the Commissioner within 60 days of the receipt of the written statement referred to in paragraph (c)(7) of this section.

(2) Arbitrators shall be chosen from an appropriate panel of arbitrators, and hearings shall be conducted according to rules established by the Department of Insurance.

(3) The arbitrator shall review written arbitration requests prior to holding any hearing or allowing any exchange of information between the parties in order to determine whether a written arbitration request is meritless on its face, and may summarily dismiss meritless requests for arbitration.

(4) Neither party shall be held to have waived any of its rights to seek relief in a court of law with respect to a covered person's legal rights to benefits by an act relating to arbitration or the rendering of an arbitration decision.

(5) Arbitration decisions shall be rendered within 45 days of the Commissioner's receipt of an arbitration request.

(f) The Insurance Commissioner shall establish a schedule of fees for arbitration. Fees chargeable to covered persons shall not exceed $75 per arbitration. The carrier shall be responsible for all costs of arbitration which exceed this fee regardless of the final ruling, and shall reimburse the Commissioner for the expenses related to the arbitration process. Funds paid to the Insurance Commissioner under this subsection shall be placed in the arbitration fund and shall be used exclusively for the payment of appointed arbitrators. The Insurance Commissioner may, in his or her discretion, impose a schedule of maximum fees that can be charged by an arbitrator for a given type of arbitration.

(g) If the arbitrator makes a decision in favor of the carrier, that decision shall give rise to a rebuttable presumption to that effect in any subsequent action brought by or on behalf of the covered person with respect to the decision. Should the decision favor the covered person, the carrier shall have the right to appeal the matter to the Court, in accordance with Court rules. The outcome of that appeal, however, shall have no effect on the covered person, as to whom the decision of the arbitrator shall control. The assignment of counsel for an appeal by the carrier and the payment of expenses of that assigned counsel shall be as set forth in § 6416(b) of this title.

(h) Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect policies or contracts to the extent that those policies or contracts are exempt from state regulation under federal law or regulation, nor shall anything in this section be read to restrict any affirmative rights granted to patients or insureds under any other provision of the Delaware Code or the common law of the State.

(i) Notwithstanding any other language in the Delaware Code, the Department of Health and Social Services shall have the authority to carry out all duties assigned to it by this section.

70 Del. Laws, c. 194, § 1; 70 Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1; 73 Del. Laws, c. 96, § 4; 73 Del. Laws, c. 315, § 6; 75 Del. Laws, c. 362, §§ 3-5; 78 Del. Laws, c. 226, § 3.;

(a) Definitions. — The following definitions shall apply with respect to this section:

(1) "Health care provider" means a person, corporation, facility or institution licensed by this State pursuant to Title 24 or Title 16 to provide health care or professional services or any officers, employees or agents thereof acting within the scope of their employment; provided, however, that the term "health care provider" shall not mean or include the following:

a. Any nursing service or nursing facility conducted by or for those who rely upon treatment solely by spiritual means in accordance with the creed or tenets of any generally recognized church or religious denomination;

b. Any nursing facility as defined at § 1102(4) of Title 16 or its successor; and

c. Any hospital as defined at § 1001(2) of Title 16 or its successor.

(2) "Insurance carrier" means any entity that provides health insurance in this State. For the purposes of this section, "carrier" includes an insurance company, health services corporation, health maintenance organization and any other entity providing a plan of health insurance or health benefits subject to state insurance regulation. "Carrier" also includes any third-party administrator or other entity that adjusts, administers or settles claims in connection with health benefit plans.

(b) Every insurance carrier shall be required to submit to arbitration, in the manner set forth in this section, any dispute with a health care provider regarding reimbursement for an individual claim, procedure or service by that health care provider for health care services, upon a request for arbitration by the health care provider. A request for arbitration shall be made within 60 days after the receipt of the decision rendered by the insurance carrier. The Commissioner shall promulgate regulations addressing the manner in which health care providers must be informed of the availability of arbitration under this section.

(c) By requesting arbitration pursuant to this chapter, a health care provider shall be deemed to have agreed that it will not bill its patient for the difference between its charge and any reimbursement awarded by the arbitrator if it is forbidden from such billing by its contract with the carrier against whom the award is entered.

(d) The arbitration program shall be administered by the Department of Insurance.

(e) The Commissioner shall establish a panel of arbitrators, from which the Commissioner or the Commissioner's designee will select 1 person to hear each request for arbitration. No cause of action shall arise nor shall any liability be imposed against any individual appointed as arbitrator for any conduct performed in good faith while carrying out the provisions of this section. In establishing the panel of arbitrators required by this subsection, the Commissioner shall endeavor to appoint persons qualified to hear both legal and medical disputes.

(f) The losing party in an arbitration conducted pursuant to this section shall have a right to trial de novo in the Superior Court so long as notice of appeal is filed with that Court in the manner set forth by Superior Court rules within 30 days of the date of the arbitration decision being rendered.

(g) The Commissioner shall establish a schedule of fees for arbitration, which shall not exceed $100 per arbitration. The arbitrator may award to the health care provider the cost of filing the arbitration if the health care provider should prevail.

(h) The cost of arbitration shall be payable to the Department of Insurance, and shall be maintained in a special fund identified as the "Arbitration Fund," which shall remain separate and segregated from the General Fund. The compensation paid to the arbitrator shall be payable from the Arbitration Fund.

(i) The Commissioner may promulgate regulations exempting insurance carriers from the requirements of this section if the carriers maintain a substantially similar program to that created by this section.

(j) The following issues shall not be subject to arbitration under this section:

(1) Disputes as to whether the patient for whom health care services were provided was a policyholder of the insurance carrier at the time services were rendered, or was otherwise entitled by contract to receive health care services or reimbursement for health care services.

(2) Disputes that are already pending before a court of law.

(3) Disputes that fall under an insurance carrier's own arbitration program, which has been granted an exemption pursuant to subsection (i) of this section.

(k) Arbitration under this section of disputes that are subject to arbitration pursuant to § 332 of this title, or resolution pursuant to § 9119 et seq. of Title 16, shall be stayed during the pendency of those proceedings. If a decision is entered under § 332 of this title or § 9119 et seq. of Title 16 regarding an issue identical to one for which arbitration is sought under this section, and no appeal is pending, the decision entered under § 332 of this title or § 9119 et seq. of Title 16 shall govern the outcome of the arbitration sought under this section.

(l) Health care providers shall attempt to resolve disputes informally with insurance carriers before requesting arbitration pursuant to this section. The arbitrator may dismiss an arbitration petition without prejudice if the arbitrator finds that the health care provider has not attempted to resolve the matter informally.

(m) Nothing in this section shall be construed to permit the alteration, amendment or modification of the substantive reimbursement terms of the insurance carrier's contracts with its members or health care providers.

(n) This section shall be construed in a manner consistent with federal law and regulations.

(o) Arbitrations conducted pursuant to this section shall be subject to the provisions of §§ 10122 and 10125 of Title 29, provided that arbitrations shall not be conducted in public. Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, arbitration proceedings shall not be considered case decisions under Chapter 101 of Title 29.

(p) The Commissioner shall promulgate regulations for purposes of implementing this section.

76 Del. Laws, c. 64, § 1.;